JPAST is biannual multidisciplinary journal starting from July 2011. Articles are invited for July 20 issue.
Studies on Effect of Interface Layer at the Organic-Cathode Interface on PCE of OSCs-Dr. Hemant Kumar.

 Studies on Effect of Interface Layer at the Organic-Cathode Interface on PCE of OSCs

 

Dr. Hemant Kumar

GovernmentDegreeCollege, Kasganj, UP,India.

hemantamu@gmail.com

 

The effect of exciton blocking layer (EBL) on the performance of bilayer copper pthalocyanine (CuPc)/fullerene (C60) photovoltaic devices is studied and the results are presented here. CuPc and C60 are the electron donor and acceptor respectively. The application of EBL enhances the fill factor (FF) and short circuit current (Jsc), which results in the enhancement of the overall efficiency of the devices. Bathocuproine (BCP) and bathophenanlthroline (BPhen) are used as the EBL materials in these studies. With respect to the standard device (device containing no EBL), an enhancement of ~ 48 times in efficiency is observed for the device containing BCP. The application of BPhen in place of BCP enhances further the efficiency by ~ 70 %, which is attributed to better electron transportation through BPhen.

Keywords: Exciton blocking layer (EBL), Fill factor (FF), Organic semiconductors (OSCs).

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Entanglement Detection Criterion in terms of Probability Amplitudes – Sushamana Sharma, Rakesh Kothari and Abhijit Kulshrestha.

Entanglement Detection Criterion in terms of Probability Amplitudes

Sushamana Sharma1,*, Rakesh Kothari2 and Abhijit Kulshrestha3

1,2,3 Dept. of Physics, Jodhpur Institute of Engineering & Technology, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

*sushmana.sharma@jietjodhpur.com

Entanglement has widely researched nowadays worldwide because of its applications in the field of technology. A significant problem is its detection is dealt in this paper. Many methods for entanglement detection and problems associated them are given. An entanglement criterion based on probability amplitudes is derived and tricks which helps in finding a suitable entanglement witness for two qubit systems is explained.

Keywords: Entaglement, Probability amplitude, Two qubit system.

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Sensitive, Simple and Rapid Spectrophotometric Method for Monitoring Treatment Concentration of Chloramine-T on Fish Culture Facilities and Environmental Water Samples using Green Analytical Reagent – Riyad Ahmed Al-Okab and Amal Mohammed Al-Awadhi.

Sensitive, Simple and Rapid Spectrophotometric Method for Monitoring Treatment Concentration of Chloramine-T on Fish Culture Facilities and Environmental Water Samples using Green Analytical Reagent

Riyad Ahmed Al-Okab1,* and Amal Mohammed Al-Awadhi2

1,*Chemistry Department, Faculty of Applied Science, Taiz University, Taiz, Republic of Yemen.

2Medical Sciences Dean’s Assistant, Lebanese International University, Sana’a, Republic of Yemen.

*riad.aloqob@ye.liu.edu.lb

 

When studying the effectiveness of the drug for controlling bacterial gill disease. N-sodium-N-chloro-rho-toluenesulfonamide (chloramine-T) concentration must be monitored during treatments of fish. A simple, sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method, using phenoxazine Cisapride (CSP) and Metaclopramide as green analytical reagents for determination of chloramine-T (CAT) was proposed. The methods are based on the oxidation of Cisapride (CSP) and Metaclopramide (MCP) by chloramine-T in acidic media and coupling with phenoxazine to produce red colour product that has maximum absorption at 520 nm. The calibration curves are linear over 0.50 – 4.50 µg mL‑1 and 0.45 – 4.00 µg mL‑1 respectively. The concentration measurements are reproducible within a relative standard deviation of 1% and recoveries are 98.0 -102.0 %. The performance of proposed methods were evaluated in terms of Student’s t-test and Variance ratio F-test that indicate the significance of proposed methods over the standard spectrophotometric method. The proposed method was successfully applied in the determination of chloramine-T in fish culture facilities and environmental water samples.

Keywords: Chloramine-T, Spectrophotometric method, Fish Culture Facilities, Phenoxazine cisapride, green analytical reagents.

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Study of Structural, Morphological and Optical Properties of Nano-Structured Zinc doped V2O5 Thin Films – T. Akkila and I. Mansur Basha.

Study of Structural, Morphological and Optical Properties of Nano-Structured Zinc doped V2O5 Thin Films

T. Akkila1,* and I. Mansur Basha2

1,*PG& Research Department of Physics, Govt. Arts College, Trichy, Tamilnadu, India.

2PG& Research Department of Physics, Jamal Mohamed College (Autonomous), Trichy,Tamilnadu, India.

 

Thin films of zinc-doped vanadium pentoxide with different Zn doping levels (in steps of 0.1mM of Zn) were deposited on glass substrates by a home built spray pyrolysis system. The effect of Zn doping on the structural, morphological and optical characteristics were carried out. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed that prepared films were polycrystalline in nature, having an orthorhombic crystal structure. Annealing effect improved the crystallinity of the films. The crystallite size of the films was found to increase after annealing. From the FESEM image, the rod shape was observed in the annealed pristine V2O5 film. The band gap energies of as deposited and annealed pristine V2O5 film were 2.16eV and 2.18eV respectively. The band gap energy of as deposited films varied with Zn doping.

Keywords: Thin films, Zinc Doping, Spray pyrolysis, X-ray diffraction.

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Effect of Coulomb Blockade on Josephson Super Current Across Superconductor/Quantum Dot/Superconductor Nano Junction – A. Dhyani, P. Dua, A.K. Chawla and B.S. Tewari.

Effect of Coulomb Blockade on Josephson Super Current Across Superconductor/Quantum Dot/Superconductor Nano Junction

A. Dhyani, P. Dua, A.K. Chawla and B.S. Tewari*

Department of Physics, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.

*E-mail:-bstewari@ddn.upes.ac.in

 

The present paper deals with the study of Josephson supercurrent across the correlated single level quantum dot sandwiched between two s-wave superconductors. The renormalized Anderson model is used that includes in the Hamiltonian contribution corresponding to the correlated superconducting quantum dot state, effective BCS type attractive interaction in the superconducting leads, the electron tunneling energy term responsible for coupling of superconducting leads with the dot energy level thatrepresents the tunneling of Cooper pair between two superconductors and on-dot coulomb energy to take care of electronic correlations. The Green’s function equations of motion technique are employed within the framework of Ambegaokar-Baratoff approach to analyze the Josephson supercurrent across such junction. It is pointed out that for large value of on-dot Coulomb energy, the Josephson supercurrent across superconducting Quantum dot (S-QD-S) junction decreases.

Keywords: Josephson supercurrent, Quantum dot, Electron tunneling, Cooper pair, Superconductivity, Nanoscopic junction.

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Higher (U,M)- Derivations in Completely Semi Prime Γ-Rings – M.M. Rahman and S.K. Paul.

Higher – Derivations in Completely Semi Prime -Rings

M.M. Rahman1 and S.K. Paul2,*
1Department of Mathematics, Jagannath University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
2,*Department of Basic Sciences and Humanities, University of Asia Pacific, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

*e-mail: sanjitkpaul@gmail.com

 

The aim of the present paper is to prove dn (uαm) = Ʃi+j=n di(u)αdj(m), ∀u ∈ U, m∈M, α ∈ Γ, n ∈ N, where  is a 2-torsion free completely semi prime  Γ-ring satisfying the condition aαbβc = aβbαc, ∀ a,b,c ∈ M and α,β∈ Γ,U is an admissible Lie ideal of M and D = (di)iN is a higher (U,M)-derivation of M.

Keywords: Admissible Lie ideal, higher -derivation, completely semiprime -ring.

2010 AMS Subject Classification: Primary 13N15; Secondary 16W10, 17C50.

Full Paper

 


Effect of Temperature and Nature of Bond Fission involved in the Hydrolysis of Tri-3,4-Dichloro Aniline Phosphate Ester – Dr. Amit Chaudhary.

Effect of Temperature and Nature of Bond Fission involved in the Hydrolysis of Tri-3,4-Dichloro Aniline Phosphate Ester

Dr. Amit Chaudhary

Chemistry Department, D.S. College, Aligarh, U.P., India..

Email: amitchaudhary111114@gmail.com

 

Kinetic study of the hydrolysis of 3,4-dichloro aniline phosphate triester have been investigated in 30% aqueous dioxan medium by performing kinetic runs in buffer solution from pH 1.24 to 7.46 at (97±0.5)°C temperature. Neutral species of the triester have been found to be reactive in this region.

Effect of temperature on the rate of hydrolysis of the triester have been studied to know the molecularity of the reaction. Comparative kinetic rate data and isokinetic relationship plot of some other phosphate triesters of known mechanism were considered to decide whether the hydrolysis of the present triester proceed with P-N or C-N bond fission.

Keywords: Hydrolysis, Dioxan medium, Triester.

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Study of Shock Wave in Non-Ideal Gas – Dr. C.V. Singh.

Study of Shock Wave in Non-Ideal Gas

Dr. C.V. Singh

Department of Physics, Agra College, Agra, U.P., India.

Email: drcvsinghph@Rediffenial.com

 

One dimensional propagating gravitating gas behind a shock wave propagating in a uniform non-ideal gas at rest is investigated. The equation of state in the suitable form for ideal gases is found to be much accurate and the equation of state for non-ideal gas is considered as given by Landau and Lifsitz.

Keywords: Shock wave, Non-ideal gas.

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Creation of a Complete Hindi Handwritten Database for Researchers – Rama Gaur and Dr. V.S. Chouhan.

Creation of a Complete Hindi Handwritten Database for Researchers

Rama Gaur1,* and Dr. V.S. Chouhan2

1,*Ph.D. Scholar (ECE), Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

 2Professor and Head ECE department, MBM Engineering college, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

The standard database plays a vital role in handwritten character recognition. Performance of various algorithms and results obtained by researchers can be evaluated only by a benchmark database. In the field of Hindi handwritten research such database is not available. My paper is focuses on creation complete database of Hindi character and numerals. I have generated almost 100-200 samples of each character. The images are stored in JPEG format. The dimension of each character is 105X125 pixels.The size of one character is in between 12 to 25 KB. I have taken fix dimension of character to reduce the complexity for the beginners in testing their algorithms. I am sure that this database will be helpful to the future researchers.

Keywords: Character recognition, Database, Algorithms.

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Characterization of Source Rock Sediments from Test Well GGAG#699 Located in Gandhar Oil Field of Gujarat Petroliferous Basin, India, using 57Fe Mössbauer Spectroscopy – Mridula Bohra, Sahi Ram, S.K. Barbar and K.R. Patel.

Characterization of Source Rock Sediments from Test Well GGAG#699 Located in Gandhar Oil Field of Gujarat Petroliferous Basin, India, using 57Fe Mössbauer Spectroscopy

Mridula Bohra, Sahi Ram*, S.K. Barbar and K.R. Patel

Department of Physics, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

E-mail: sr_panwar@yahoo.co.in

 

57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic studies on deep subsurface sediments collected from test well GGAG#699 located in Gandhar oil field of Cambay basin, Gujarat is reported. It is found that iron if mainly present in some clay (both in high spin Fe2+ and Fe3+ state) along with fluctuating amount of pyrite and siderite. The distribution trend of iron bearing minerals can provide useful information about redox environment and in estimating the quality of source rocks in sediments.

Keywords: Source rocks, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic study, Iron bearing minerals, Cambay basin.

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Studies of Glycine Dimethyl Urea Crystals Grown by Aqueous Solution Method – U. Rajesh Kannan, G. Narayanasamy, S. Subramanian and P. Selvarajan.

Studies of Glycine Dimethyl Urea Crystals Grown by Aqueous Solution Method

U. Rajesh Kannan1,*, G. Narayanasamy2, S. Subramanian3 and P. Selvarajan4

1,*Research Scholar, Reg. no. 12116, Department of Physics, M.D.T. Hindu College, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India. *Corresponding author: rajeshphymsu@gmail.com

2Asso. Prof., Department of Physics, Kamaraj College, Tuticorin, Tamilnadu, India.

3Prof  & Principal (Rtd.), Department of Physics, M.D.T. Hindu College, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India.

4Asso. Prof., Department of Physics, Aditanar College of Arts and Science, Tiruchendur, Tamilnadu, India.

(Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Abishekapatti, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India)

 

Glycine dimethyl urea single crystals were grown by aqueous solution method with slow evaporation technique. Let this crystal be called as GDMU crystal. The grown crystals were characterized chemically, structurally, thermally, optically and mechanically by various studies. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates the crystal system as monoclinic. The functional groups have been identified using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and FT-Raman spectral analyses. Optical transmittance studies reveal very low absorption in the entire visible region. The thermal stability of the title crystal was found by the TG/DSC analysis. Mechanical characterization was done by studying the variation of microhardness with applied load. Solubility of the material was gravimetrically analyzed. The impedance analysis was performed for the sample to understand the electrical properties. Z-scan technique was employed to confirm the third order nonlinearity of the grown crystals. Its relative SHG efficiency has been tested by Kurtz powder method and it shows 1.145 times that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP). The elements present in the sample were identified by EDAX method. Photoluminescence studies were carried out for GDMU crystal to identify the photo emission peaks and the results from the various studied were analyzed.

Keywords: Aqueous Solution method, XRD, FTIR, FT-Raman, TG/DSC analysis, Hardness, Impedance, Z-Scan Spectroscopy, Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) efficiency, EDAX, Photoluminescence.

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Weather based yield crop forecasting: Agro-Physics Approach – Dr. Vinay kumar.

Weather based yield crop forecasting: Agro-Physics Approach

 Dr. Vinay kumar

 Department of physics, Janta Vedic College, Baraut, Baghpat, U.P., India

 

The present paper deals with use of non-linear regression analysis for developing Wheat yield forecast model for Jhansi (India). Weather indices based regression models were developed using weather indices as independent variables while character under study such as crop yield was used as dependent variable for Wheat Crop i.e. two step non-linear forecast model. Technique of forecasting using non-linear approach and using weather indices will enrich the knowledge in developing customized models on forecasting for different types of crops and for different locations. For that, trend analysis has been done through linear and non-linear approaches. In which for each weather variable two indices have been developed, one as simple total of values of weather parameter in different weeks and the other one as weighted total, weights being correlation coefficients between detrended yield and weather variable in respective weeks. Weather indices based regression models were developed using weather indices as independent variables while detrended yield (residuals) was considered as dependent variable. Time series yield data of 40 years (1970-2010) and weather data for the year 1970-71 to 2009-10 have been utilized. The models have been used to forecast yield in the subsequent three years 2008-09 to 2009-10 (which were not included in model development). The approach provided reliable yield forecast about two months before harvest.

Keywords: Forecasting, Nonlinear regression model, Weather Indices Approach, Weather variables.

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Euler’s Type Integrals Results for Matrix Argument involving Zonal Polynomial – Dr. P.K. Mishra, Dr. Abhijit Kulshreshtha and Dr. Vaibhav Jain.

Euler’s Type Integrals Results for Matrix Argument involving Zonal Polynomial

Dr. P.K. Mishra1, Dr. Abhijit Kulshreshtha2,* and Dr. Vaibhav Jain3

1Department of Mathematics, Sobhasaria Group of Institutions, Sikar, Rajasthan India.

2,*Department of Physics, JIET Group of Institutions, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

*E-mail:- abhijitjecrc@yahoo.com

3HOD, Department of Physics, DAV (PG) College, Bulandshahr, UP, India

.

In this paper some Euler’s type integrals of generalized hypergeometric function of symmetric positive definite matrix associated with zonal polynomial are discussed, then established new result in particular cases and compare with Euler’s type integral of scalar case. The integrals of Euler’s type have a wide range of applications in the theory of applicable mathematics including statistical distributions. Few known and new results are discussed as particular cases.

2010 Mathematics Subject Classifications: 33C20, 33C45, 33E20, 33C60.

Keywords: Euler’s type integral, Matrix arguments, Zonal polynomials, Hypergeometric function.

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Ecological Observations of Avian Fauna on Different Trees in the Thar Desert of Rajasthan, India – G. R. Parihar.

Ecological Observations of Avian Fauna on Different Trees in the Thar Desert of Rajasthan, India

G. R. Parihar

Department of Zoology, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan,  India

e-mail: grpariharjnvu@yahoo.co

 

The vegetation of the Thar Desert has great economic importance and many of them contribute to varieties of product for human use and also meet out the domestic requirement of birds. Among these, the Khejari (Prosopis cineraria), Ker (Caparis decidua), Jal (Salvadora persica) and Bordi (Zyzipus nummularia) have the vital role for biodiversity and supporting biocological activities of many birds for their survival in this region. The observations reveal that the Khejari has major important role and support a varieties of birds onthe tree and in the understory of it. These trees are used for night rest as well as for short rest during the day by birds. Caparis decedua is found to support about five species of birds. This shrub provides shelter to birds as night abode. Salvadora percica support four species of birds. Interestingly its holes of old tree trunk provide nesting to nocturnal bird i.e., spotted owlet (Althene brama). Similarly, Zyzipus nummularia support birds primarily for food and subsidiary for nesting purposes. This also provides shelter to birds from predator attack. In present work, bio-ecological observations related to food, feeding and resting behavior of various birds are discussed and are and presented in tables.

Key words: Birds, Thar Desert, Biodiversity, Predator.

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57Fe Mössbauer Spectroscopic Study of Sedimentary Samples from Goru Formation in Well MNW-1 of Jaisalmer Basin, Rajasthan, India – Samay Singh Meena, Sahi Ram, Beena Bhatia, and R.P. Tripathi.

57Fe Mössbauer Spectroscopic Study of Sedimentary Samples from Goru Formation in Well MNW-1 of Jaisalmer Basin, Rajasthan, India

Samay Singh Meena, Sahi Ram*, Beena Bhatia, and R.P. Tripathi

Department of Physics, Jai Narain Vyas University,

Jodhpur-342005, India

*Corresponding author: srpanwar@yahoo.co.in

 

The test well MNW-1 is located in the Manewala structure of Jaisalmer basin. The Cretaceous sediments are believed to contain source rocks in this basin, the samples collected from Goru formation of upper Cretaceous sedimentary sequence were investigated using Mössbauer spectroscopy to understand the relative distribution of iron bearing minerals with depth.

Iron was found present mainly in siderite, Fe2+ in clay minerals and Fe3+ in clay minerals. Large abundance of Fe3+ in clay minerals in comparison Fe2+ in clay minerals results into lower ferrous to ferric ratio in this Formation. This is an indication of poor reducing environment which is not favorable for transformation of organic matter into hydrocarbons.

Keywords: Source rocks, Mössbauer spectroscopy, Iron bearing minerals.

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Electrical Properties of Cadmium Sulphide Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition Technique: A Review – Dr. Vaibhav Jain.

Electrical Properties of Cadmium Sulphide Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition Technique: A Review

Dr. Vaibhav Jain

HOD and Associate Professer, DAV (PG) College, Bulandshahr, UP, India

In this work I tried to summarize some electrical properties of CdS thin films prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique. CBD is very easy and cost effective. I focused on semiconductor type, resistivity and carrier mobility of CdS thin films. There is a good agreement in previous workers for these properties. They agreed that CdS is n type semiconductor and resistivity decreases while carrier mobility increases due to annealing of CdS thin films.

Keywords: Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique, Semiconductor type, Resistivity and Carrier mobility.

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The Study of Channel Thermal noise in MOSFETs – Dr. V.P. Singh.

The Study of Channel Thermal noise in MOSFETs

Dr. V.P. Singh

Associate Professor, D.J. College Baraut, U.P., India.

 

In the present paper we studied experimentally the channel thermal noise in MOSFETs of short and long channel length at various drain to source voltage (Vds) and various gate to source voltage (Vgs). We also plot graph between channel thermal noise (SID) Vs (Vds) & channel thermal noise (SID) Vs gate to source voltage (Vgs). The result so obtained has good agreement with the theoretical data available in the literature. This proves the validity of our MOSFETs model.

Keywords: Channel thermal noise, MOSFETs model.

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The Study of Optical Band Gap of CdI2 Films – Dr. V.P. Singh.

The Study of Optical Band Gap of CdI2 Films

Dr. V.P. Singh

Associate Professor, D.J. College Baraut, U.P., India

 

In this paper thin film of CdI2 were grown on glass substrate at room temperature, elevated temperature by thermal evaporation  at a vacuum of about 10-6 Torr using molybdenum boat. The optical absorption measurements were carried out in UV/VIS region using a (Shimadzu UV-260) spectrometer. The absorption coefficient  is calculated. The thickness of film (t) vs Energy bad gap (Eg) of CdI2 is studied. Studies show both direct and indirect nature of band gap in conformation with existing theoretically calculated band structure in literature.

Keywords: thermal evaporation, Absorption coefficient, Energy bad gap.

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Performance Enhancement through Handling of False Classification for Smart Video Surveillance – Lavanya Sharma and Nirvikar Lohan.

Performance Enhancement through Handling of False Classification for Smart Video Surveillance

Lavanya Sharma1,* and Nirvikar Lohan2

   1,*Department of Computer Science, Uttarakhand Technical University, Dehradun, India.

2Department of Computer Science, College of Engineering Roorkee, Roorkee, India.

 

Over the last decennium, Visual surveillance has become an active research domain for academicians, researchers or industry due to its rapid day by day growing importance in terms of realistic environment. The solutions of the video surveillance are security tools that help us to monitor various things in terms of moving object (i.e. locations, monuments, building, people, etc. In this paper we proposed an efficient method for detection of object using background subtraction technique by enhancing the exiting method. To preserve the shape and removal of noisy pixels some post processing tools were also used. Comparative analysis of our method with considered state-of-the-art method reveals that proposed method shows better outcomes both in terms of qualitative and Quantitative analysis.

Keywords: Video Surveillance, Background Subtraction, Object Detection and Tracking, Pedestrian, Morphology.

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Defluroidation of Drinking Water by Different Techniques – Sangeeta Parihar and Raina Jadhav.

Defluroidation of Drinking Water by

Different Techniques

Sangeeta Parihar1,* and Raina Jadhav2

1,*Department of Chemistry, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India

2Department of Chemistry, IPS Academy Indore, MP, India.

Fluoride has been reported as a health affecting substance by health organization. Fluoride in water may be beneficial and detrimental depending on their concentration and total amount ingested. The permissible limit for of fluoride is 1.0- 1.5 mg/l. Fluoride greater than limit is toxic and is associated with dental fluorosis. The flurosis is caused by oral intake of fluoride when drinking water contain more than the permitted concentration of fluoride. The amount of fluoride is increasing day by day in water samples. So, here in this research paper a comparative study has been done of the water sample containing fluoride is present in the recommended limit or not. The defluoridated is done by the mean of precipitation adsorption or ion exchange method. The comparative result is reported in the research paper.

Keywords: Fluoride, Adsorbent, Fluorosis, Defluoridation Methods.

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Temperature Effect on the Performance of H2Pc/C60 Photovoltaic Device – Dr. Hemant Kumar.

Temperature Effect on the Performance of H2Pc/C60 Photovoltaic Device

Dr. Hemant Kumar

Government Degree College, Kasganj, UP, India.

drhemantgdc@gmail.com

 


We present the investigations carried out on the effect of temperature on the performance of hydrogen phthalocyanine (H2Pc)/fullerene (C60) bilayer organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. Prior to these investigations the thicknesses of the active layers were optimised to get the best performance. The optimised device had an efficiency of ~0.5% at 307 oK. The investigations on the best device showed that temperature has significant effect on the photovoltaic performance. Short circuit current density (Jsc) and fill factor (FF) decrease while open circuit voltage (Voc) increases with reduction in temperature. In overall the efficiency first increases and then decreases with reduction in temperature. The reduction in Jsc and FF is because of the temperature dependent electronic properties of the organic materials. We have developed a model which shows that the built in voltage (Vbi) of the devices increases with reduction in temperature. The increment in Voc with reduction in temperature has been attributed to the increment in Vbi.

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A Review on Systematic Study of Aryl Propionic Acid and Derivatives- Deepika Katariya and Ajit Joshi.

A Review on Systematic Study of Aryl Propionic Acid and Derivatives

Deepika Katariya1,* and Ajit Joshi2

1,2Department of Chemistry, Mewar University, Chittorgarh (Rajasthan)

E-mail:deepika.katariya65@gmail.com

 

In aryl propionic acid most common drugs are ibuprofen, ketoprophen and naproxen. These are available over-the-counter in United States. A consumer report noted that ibuprofen, naproxen, and salsalate are less expensive than other NSAIDs, and essentially as effective and safe when used appropriately to treat osteoarthritis and pain. Ibuprophen (Motrin®, Advil®, Motrin IB®) is considered to be among the safest NSAIDs and is generally well tolerated but can, nevertheless, rarely cause clinically apparent and serious acute liver. Ketoprophen (Orudis,Oruvail) topical plasters are being extensively used for treatment of musculoskeletal pain. Ketoprofen is used for its antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Naproxen (Naprosyn®, Aleve®) is commonly used for the reduction of pain, fever, inflammation and stiffness caused by conditions including migraine, osteoarthritis, kidney stones, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, gout, ankylosing spondylitis, menstrual cramps, tendinitis and bursitis.

In general, there exists virtually very little difference between the therapeutic efficacy of different NSAIDs, as certain patients would respond to one ‘drug’ better than another. In reality, it is almost difficult to predict the best suitable drug for a patient; thus, it invariably necessitates to arrive at the best-fit-drug via trial and error only. By studying these drugs we can get the knowledge about these drugs like how these drugs are useful and harmful for us.

Keywords: Aryl propionic acid, Ibuprofen, Ketoprofen,Neproxen, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and Inflammation.

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Correlation between Average Inter-Atomic Distance and the Thermal Properties of AIBIIIC2VI Chalcopyrite Crystal Structured Solids – Deepak Sharma, P. K. Sharma and Arti Maheshwari.

Correlation between Average Inter-Atomic Distance and the Thermal Properties of AIBIIIC2VI Chalcopyrite Crystal Structured Solids

Deepak Sharma1,*, P. K. Sharma2 and Arti Maheshwari3

1,2 Department of Applied Sciences (Physics), IIMT College of Engineering, Greater Noida, 201306

3 Department of Chemistry, IET, Mangalayatan University, Beswan, Aligarh, India, 202001

* deepak.shrm1@gmail.com

 

A striking inter-relation has been evolved for heats of formation determination of ternary chalcopyrite of the type AIBIIIC2VI. The proposed relation is derived in terms of average inter-atomic distance and melting temperature. A discussion has also been presented among the heats of formation, average inter-atomic distance and melting temperature of these compounds.

Keywords: Chalcopyrite, Average inter-atomic distance, Melting temperature and Heats of formation.

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Asset Management Strategy to Improve Substation Performance – Ashish Kumar Singh, Avinash Sinha and Deepak Joshi.

Asset Management Strategy to Improve Substation Performance

Ashish Kumar Singh1,*, Avinash Sinha2 and Deepak Joshi3

1,2,3 Department of Electrical Engineering, IIMT group of colleges, Gr. Noida, U.P., India

Due to the economic burden imposed by deregulation, utilities are looking at new ways of operating and maintaining their assets. The utilities are concentrating at managing their substation assets. Financial managers try to maximize return-on-investment for each asset; substation maintenance managers try to maximize the value of each task. By minimizing unexpected breakdowns, we maximize return on capital investment. Asset criticality, reliability, and condition assessment plan key roles in helping to manage risk. By conducting reliability cantered maintenance as an overall strategy for critical asset management, a powerful enterprise system, like Meridium, bring together the information from across the enterprise to make effective decisions.

Keywords: RCM (Reliability Centered Maintenance), Deregulation, FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis), PM (Preventive Maintenance) and MTBF (Mean Time between Failure).

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The Study of MHD Flow of A Oldroyd B_ Liquid through a Porous Medium between Inclined Parallel Plates – Sharad Kumar Agarwal, Devesh kumar and Deepak Chikara.

The Study of MHD Flow of A Oldroyd B_ Liquid through a Porous Medium between Inclined Parallel Plates

Sharad Kumar Agarwal1,*, Devesh kumar2 and Deepak Chikara3

1,2,3 Department of Applied Sciences

IIMT College of Engineering, Gr. Noida, U.P., India

 

MHD flow of a dusty Oldroyd B_ liquid through a porous medium between two parallel plates inclined to the horizon has been studied. The liquid velocity, dust particle velocity and flux of flow have been obtained. Results of several authors have been deduced as particular cases of the present investigation. The physical situation of motion has been discussed.

Keywords: Oldroyd B liquid, Porous medium, Laminar flow.

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Crystal Structure of Fullerene C60 & C70 – A Theoretical Approach -Dr. Vaibhav Jain.

 Crystal Structure of Fullerene C60 & C70 – A Theoretical Approach

Dr. Vaibhav Jain

Physics Department, DAV (PG) College, Bulandshahr, UP, India.

 

Theoretical study of fullerene C60 and C70 via Raman Spectra method were performed to investigate the Crystal structure of fullerene C60 and C70. . Raman Spectroscopy is particularly well suited to detect small changes in structural morphology of carbon nano materials making it an indispensable tool for many material scientists working with carbon nanostructures. Structure of fullerene C60 lead to interesting application possibilities. And its derivatives such as buckyball clusters, nanotubes, megatubes, polymers, nano onions and fullerene rings have made fullerenes as an active field of research.

Keywords: fullerene, buckminsterfullerene.

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Improving Child Security using GPS Enabled Identification Card – Dr. Vaibhav Jain.

Improving Child Security using GPS Enabled Identification Card

Dr. Vaibhav Jain

Physics Department, DAV (PG) College, Bulandshahr, UP, India.

 

The burst of insecurity in the country has brought an idea to develop a Global Positioning System (GPS) based tracking system to meet the increased quantity of security issues. In this paper, we present a system – the student Identity Card, which is GPS enabled. This ID card will be linked to a dedicated mobile i.e., parents mobile. A parent at any time, even from home or from his/her office can find their child’s location. Further, this concept can also be extended to implement in the vehicles with a GPS enabled vehicle chassis for the security of vehicles and to control the vehicle’s speed.

Key words: Global Positioning system, vehicle chassis.

Full Paper


Green Route Synthesis of High Quality CdSe Quantum Dots – Anil Kumar Malik.

Green Route Synthesis of High Quality CdSe Quantum Dots

Anil Kumar Malik

Department of Physcs, Multanimal Modi College Modinagar, Uttar Pradesh, India.

e-mail: anilkmalik@gmail.com

           

Cadmium precursors with acetylacetonate, less toxic than Me2Cd give one-step synthesis procedure for CdSe quantum dots (QDs). Powder X-ray diffraction shows hexagonal structure of QDs. TEM and HRTEM images of QDs reveal that they are almost mono disperse and size is of the order of  5 nm. It is observed that the precursor and reaction time affect size. The size of QDs increases with reaction time. The temporal growth was monitored by UV−Vis spectroscopy (up to 20 min).

Keywords: Cadmium selenide, X-ray diffraction, Temporal growth.

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Nanotechnology: The Multidisciplinary Technology – A Review-Dr. Anita Pawar.

Nanotechnology: The Multidisciplinary Technology – A Review

Dr. Anita Pawar

Associate Prof. & Head of Botany Department

N.R.E.C. College, Khurja, U.P. India.

 

Nanotechnology has been defined as relating to material, system and processes which operate at a scale of 100 nm or less. It has interdisciplinary approaches. Nanotechnology has potential to change the entire scenario of the present food industry and agriculture with the help of nano-based technology.  Environmental pollution is threat to the world’s environment, many nano based eco-friendly tools has developed which can reduce the pollution and clean-up the existing pollutant. Nano is also playing important role in the field of medical science and veterinary science.

Key words: Nanotechnology, Food industry, Nano-particles.

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Impact of Urban Air Pollution on Epidermal Traits of Amaranthus viridis Growing along the Road Side-Dr. Anita Pawar.

Impact of Urban Air Pollution on Epidermal Traits of Amaranthus viridis Growing along the Road Side

Dr. Anita Pawar

Associate Prof. & Head of Botany Department

N.R.E.C. College, Khurja, U.P. India.

 

The present paper deals with the study of the impact of urban air pollution on epidermal traits. The light microscopic studies of Amaranthus viridis leaves showed marked alteration in the micromorphological parameters. Increase in the number of epidermal cells was recorded in the samples of polluted area on both upper & lower surface of leaf. But decline was noticed in stomatal frequency, dimensions of stomata and stomatal Index in stressed area leaf samples on both the surfaces. These parameters are useful as indicators of environmental stress or pollution.

 

Keywords: Epidermal traits, Amaranthus viridis, Stomatal frequency, Stomatal index.

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Auto Exhaust Pollution Induced Alteration in Leaf Morphology of Some Common Road Side Plants-Dr. Anita Pawar.

Auto Exhaust Pollution Induced Alteration in Leaf Morphology of Some Common Road Side Plants

Dr. Anita Pawar

Associate Prof. & Head of Botany Department

N.R.E.C. College, Khurja, U.P. India.

 

Present paper deals with the Auto exhaust induced changes in leaf morphology of some common road side plants. The study was conducted in city Ghaziabad, three sites were selected- HPA (Highly polluted area), MPA (Medium polluted area), FA (Fresh area). Five plants – Ricinus communis (Arandi), Amaranthus viridis (chauli), Cassia obtusifolia (chakunda), Withania somnifera (ashvagandha), Calotropis procera (madar). The parameters examined were leaf length, breadth and area. Decline was recorded in the parameters considered for the study of the leaf samples collected from polluted areas. These alterations can be considered as indicators of auto exhaust pollution.

Keywords: Auto exhaust, Leaf morphology, Highly polluted area (HPA), Medium polluted area MPA, Fresh area (FA).

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Green Concrete: A Novel Approach for Waste Utilization and Reconstruction – Dr. Vaibhav Jain.

Green Concrete: A Novel Approach for Waste Utilization and Reconstruction

Dr. Vaibhav Jain

Physics Department, DAV (PG) College, Bulandshahr, UP, India.

 

Green concrete is a concept of thinking environment into concrete considering every aspect from raw materials manufacture over mixture design to structural design, construction and service life. Green concrete is a type of concrete which resembles the conventional concrete but the production or usage of such concrete requires minimum amount of energy and causes least harm to the environment. Since it uses the recycled aggregates and materials, it reduces the extra load in landfills and mitigates the wastage of aggregates. Thus, the net CO2 emissions are reduced. The reuse of materials also contributes intensively to economy. Green concrete can be considered elemental to sustainable development since it is eco-friendly itself. One of the practices to manufacture green concrete involves reduction of amount of cement in the mix, which helps in reducing the overall cement consumption. The use of waste materials also solves the problem of disposing the excessive amount of industrial wastes. This paper discuses the importance of Green Concrete in the present day context and highlights its merits over conventional concrete which otherwise posing a serious threat to the environment through global warming.

Keywords: Green concrete, eco-friendly, waste material, global warning.

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Prevalence and Antibiotic Sensitivity ofEnterococcus sp. from Mobile Phones of Doctors and Nurses – Tuhi Ram and Dr. Mukta Sharma.

Prevalence and Antibiotic Sensitivity ofEnterococcus sp. from Mobile Phones of Doctors and Nurses

Tuhi Ram1,* and Dr. Mukta Sharma2

1,*Research Scholor, Medical Microbiology, Singhania University, Distt. Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan, India.

2Professor & Head, Department of Microbiology, SBB Dental College, Hospital and Research Centre Ghaziabad, U.P., India.

 

Mobile phone may facilitate frequent transmission of bacterial isolates from one person to another. The telephone and computer accessories are well known objects for the spread of infectious agents to healthy or immunocompromised individuals not only in hospitals but also in community. The total of 472 swab samples of mobile phone from hospital personnel were collected and studied for the presence of pathogens. The total bacterial growth obtained from mobile samples was 98.7% (466/472), from hospital population, whereas Enterococcus sp. prevalence was 13.9% (65/466), the growth of Enterococcus sp. isolated from mobile phones of doctors was 14.2% (14/98) and from nurses mobile phones it was 11.4% (17/149) whereas from health care workers it was 13.4% (53/393) and non health care it was 16.4% (12/73). The antibiotic sensitivity of Enterococcus sp. was found resistant all antibiotics except cloxacillin (100%), co-trimoxazole (55.3%) and gentamicin (52.3%).      

Keywords: Enterococcus sp. antibiotic sensitivity, nosocomial infection and mobile phones.

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Study to Assess Antimicrobial Susceptibility ofStaphylococcus sp. from Mobile phone users in Hospital Population – Tuhi Ram and Dr. Mukta Sharma.

Study to Assess Antimicrobial Susceptibility ofStaphylococcus sp. from Mobile phone users in Hospital Population

Tuhi Ram1,* and Dr. Mukta Sharma2

1,*Research Scholor, Medical Microbiology, Singhania University, Distt. Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan, India.

2Professor & Head, Department of Microbiology, SBB Dental College, Hospital and Research Centre Ghaziabad, U.P., India.

 

Mobile phones may act as a reservoir of pathogen which in turn may cause significant loss in the form of morbidity and mortality. The distribution pattern of pathogens varies with sampling site and also depends on mode of transmission. The organisms isolated from cell phones causes many infections. But some organisms developed resistance against some antibiotics. The total of 472 swab samples of mobile phone from hospital personnel were collected and studied for the presence of pathogens. Bacterial growth was obtained from 98.7% (466/472) of the mobile phones from hospital population. Staphylococcus sp. showed maximum growth 63.7% (297/466), Staphylococcus sp. was observed resistant to six antibiotics out of twelve antibiotics that we check, while it was sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin (96.2%), roxithromycin, tetracycline and pefloxacin (93.6%) and gentamicine (54.8%).

Keywords: Staphylococcus sp., Antibiotic sensitivity of Staphylococcus.

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Syngas as An Alternative Fuel Used in Internal Combustion Engines: A Review – Anushka Pradhan, Prashant Baredar, Anil Kumar.

Syngas as An Alternative Fuel Used in Internal Combustion Engines: A Review

Anushka Pradhan1, Prashant Baredar2, Anil Kumar3,*

1Research Scholar, Energy Centre, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, India.

2Associate Professor, Energy Centre, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, India.

3,*Post Doctoral Fellow, Energy Tech., Research Center, Dept. of Mech. Engg.,

Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand.

 

Among the various renewable energy sources, synthesis gas (syngas) offers a promising opportunity for sustainable development in the energy and transportation sectors. Syngas can provide an economically viable solution, in the areas where the price of petroleum and diesel fuels are high, or where supplies are unreliable. This paper contains the information regarding the effect of particle size, and the moisture content of feedstock on the quality of producer gas. Coupling of syngas to the internal combustion engines (ICEs) is a feasible technology for the generation of heat and power on a small scale. Here, effect of syngas addition on performance of a spark ignition (SI) engine and compression ignition (CI) engine is also studied. This review also presents combustion features like calorific value, laminar flame velocity and flammability limits of syngas and its effects on the combustion in an internal combustion engines.

Keywords: Synthesis Gas (Syngas), Internal combustion engine, Calorific value, Laminar flame speed, Flammability limits.

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Impact of Static Magnetic Field & Varying Electromagnetic Field upon Resistance of CdS Thin Film – Dr. Vaibhav Jain.

Impact of Static Magnetic Field & Varying Electromagnetic Field upon Resistance of CdS Thin Film

Dr. Vaibhav Jain

Assistant Professor, DAV (PG) College, Bulandshahr, UP, India.

 

In the present study we take CdS thin film of thickness t = 0.21 µm, Resistance of CdS thin film is measured in the magnetic field range 0.1T to 0.6 T with 0.1T steps and in the frequency range 2-8 MHz in the 1 MHz steps. The observed experimental data showed that resistance remain constant with change in strength of Magnetic field but it decreases as frequency of Electromagnetic field increases.

Keywords: Magnetic field, Electromagnetic field.

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Study of Geometrical Parameters of Substituted Benjoquinones and Phenols by Density Functional Theory: A review – Vinita Garg.

Study of Geometrical Parameters of Substituted Benjoquinones and Phenols by Density Functional Theory: A review

Vinita Garg

Department of Chemistry

D.N. (P.G.) College, Gulaothi, Bulandshahr, U.P., India.

Density functional theory is a quantum mechanical modeling method used to investigate the electronic structure of many body systems. In the present review different parameters of substituted benjoquinone compounds and phenol compounds are taken. FT-IR, FT- Raman spectra etc. of these compounds are recorded and the structural and spectroscopic data of these compounds in the ground state have been calculated by using Hatree- Fock and Density functional methods. On the basis of agreement between calculated and experimental results of the fundamental vibrational modes. I concluded that density functional theory gives good explanation.

Keyword: Density functional theory (DFT), FT- IR and FT-Raman spectra, Hatree Fock theory, Vibrational modes.

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Effect of Solvents and Substituents on the Fluorescence Behaviour of Coumarin Dye Lasers – Rajesh Giri.

Effect of Solvents and Substituents on the Fluorescence Behaviour of Coumarin Dye Lasers

Rajesh Giri

Department of Physics and Electronics

Rajdhani College, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India.

 

In order to investigate the effect of solvents and substituents on the fluorescence behaviour of coumarin derivatives the absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of 4–phenyl substituted coumarins namely: 4-phenyl-7-hydroxy coumarin (1), 4-phenyl-7-methoxy coumarin (2), 4-phenyl-6-hydroxy-7-methoxy coumarin (3), 4-pheny-6,7-dimethoxy  coumarin (4) and 4-phenyl-6,7-dihydroxy coumarin (5) have been studied in various organic solvents of varying dipole moment. It was found that in a given solvent the position of the absorption and fluorescence maxima depends on the nature and position of the additional substituent group linked to the 4-phenyl coumarin and the wavelengths shifts obtained are interpreted in terms of the changes in the mobility of π electrons. From the fluorescence emission spectra of the present coumarins it was found that the 4-phenyl coumarins are less fluorescent and show a smaller change in polarity on excitation as compared to the corresponding 3- henyl derivatives. These changes are interpreted in terms of the possible resonance structures of the coumarin derivatives.

Keywords: Fluorescence, Dipole moment, Resonance structures.

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A Survey of Road Side Flora Growing Under Stress of Auto Exhaust Pollution in City Ghaziabad – Dr. Anita Pawar.

A Survey of Road Side Flora Growing Under Stress of Auto Exhaust Pollution in City Ghaziabad

Dr. Anita  Pawar

Asst. Prof. Department of  Botany.

N.R.E.C College, Khurja  U.P., India.

This paper deals with the survey of different plants growing along the road side in the stressed conditions of auto-exhaust  pollution in city Ghaziabad. These are generally herbs, shrubs and trees. Some of them are wild species many of them are economically important. Due to auto-exhaust pollution some of them suffer from visible injuries and have adverse effect on growth. Even some plant species are found comparatively resistant to these stressed conditions of auto-exhaust pollution.

Keywords: Auto-exhaust, Pollution, Herb, Shrub, Tree.

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On the Fluorescence Quenching of Substituted Coumarins – Rajesh Giri.

On the Fluorescence Quenching of Substituted Coumarins

Rajesh Giri

Department of Physics and Electronics

Rajdhani College, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India.

 

In the present work the effect of different concentration of halide quenchers (Cl, Br, I) on  4-methyl-5-ethoxy-7-methoxy coumarin (1) and 4-methyl-5,7-diethoxy  coumarin (2) in aqueous solutions have been carried out at 200 temperature. It was observed that the fluorescence intensity of these coumarin derivatives decrease with increase in the concentration of the quenchers except Clquencher. Further, it was observed that the quenching due to halide ions proceeds via both a diffusional and static quenching process. The rate constants for diffusional as well as static component of quenching process have been calculated using modified Stern–Volmer relation. From the observed data it was found that I ion has very high quenching ability than Br ion and Cl ion behaves almost like a non-quencher. It was interpreted in terms of the sphere of action model by showing that the value of radius of sphere of action of the halide ion quencher is greater than the sum of the radii of the respective coumarin and quencher. Consequently, the order of the quenching ability of the halide quencher was found to be as I>Br>Cl and interestingly this is in the same order as of the ionizing energy of these halide ions. The present quenching process has been attributed to the electron transfer resulting between the colliding species.

Keywords: Halide quenchers, Coumarin derivatives, Stern–Volmer relation.

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An Experimental Study of Aerodynamic Drag on the Body of Road Vehicle – Dr. Vakkar Ali

An Experimental Study of Aerodynamic Drag on the Body of Road Vehicle

Dr. Vakkar Ali

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Majmaah University, K.S.A.

 

Any moving object through a fluid experiences a force in the direction opposite to the motion which is due to the pressure difference and shear forces on the surface of the object. If we resolve the resultant force in the direction of flow and normal to flow then there are termed as aerodynamic drag force, aerodynamic lift force respectively. If aerodynamic drag acting on the automobiles or aero planes is less, then it will consume a lesser power resulting in less fuel consumption. In the present proposed study we have look after practical aspect of an model of automobile car, (Maruti Esteem). For practical approach, we have to analyze the available model to see the factors, which may reduce drag force on the surface of the moving body. In the present work drag force is calculated on the body of car model experimentally on the basis of our findings drag force is directly proportional to the angle of wind screen, velocity, surface, and fluid viscosity.

Keywords: Aerodynamic drag force, Aerodynamic lift force.

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Prevalence and Biochemical Characterization of Bacteria Isolated from some River/Canal Bank Water Sources, Door of Transport Vehicles and Shop Counters of Western UP and Uttrakhand area in India – A.S. Shishodia*, Dr. Ajit Joshi and Dr. Mukta Sharma.

Prevalence and Biochemical Characterization of Bacteria Isolated from some River/Canal Bank Water Sources, Door of Transport Vehicles and Shop Counters of Western UP and Uttrakhand area in India

A.S. Shishodia1,*, Dr. Ajit Joshi2 and Dr. Mukta Sharma3

1,*Research Scholar, Department of Microbiology, Mewar University, Chittorgarh (Raj.) India.

1Assistant Prof., Department of Microbiology, Mewar University, Chittorgarh (Raj.) India.

3Department of Microbiology, S.B.B. Dental College & Research Centre, Ghaziabad, India.

Aim of the present study is prevalence and biochemical characterization of bacteria isolated from some River/Canal bank water sources, door of transport vehicles and shop-counters. Water samples from river/canal bank water sources and swab samples from door of transport vehicles and shop-counters were collected and analyzed for the load of pathogenic microorganism and possible disease potentials of these sources to prevent possible disease outbreak for the inhabitants. The results of study presents water samples collected from River/Canal bank contains the total aerobic bacterial counts ranged between 21×105 to 16.6×106 per ml, while on the door and seat handles of public transport vehicles and frequent public use shop counters the total bacterial counts ranged between 18×104 to 17.5×105 and 21×104 to 11.3×105, respectively. All of these were within the range of a high risk specified by WHO. In addition, There was a high correlation between water isolates with fecal isolates of different sources both in their culture characteristics as well as biochemical profiling which implies that the different sources might have been contaminated with mixed contaminants instigate from human as well as animal excreta. Forestalling of deterioration of water quality and pathogenic diseases transmission to humans via contaminated and improperly cleaned surfaces require community health superintendents, sanitary officers and Environmental Protection Board as well as private organizations to educate the population on personal and environmental hygiene.

Key Words: River/Canal bank water, Shop counters, Bacterial contamination.

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Analysis and Design of MOSFET based Amplifer in Common Drain Configurations – Dr. Vaibhav Jain.

Analysis and Design of MOSFET based Amplifer in Common Drain Configurations

Dr. Vaibhav Jain

Physics Department, DAV (PG) College, Bulandshahr, UP, India.

 

This paper presents the design of amplifier in Common Drain configuration. It also presents its input and output characteristics, time domain analysis and frequency response of the amplifier. The voltage gain of amplifier is designed by choosing appropriate value of VGS in saturation region in the input output voltage characteristics. After choosing that value we applied an input sinusoidal signal and check the output waveform and compare it with the theoretical results.

 

Keywords: CMOS Analog Integrated Circuits, T-Spice, Voltage Swing, Overdrive.

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Electrical Resistivity and Magnetic Susceptibility of 10% Pr-Doped YBa2Cu3O7-X At High Temperatures – Dr. Pawan Kumar and Dr. Vaibhav Jain.

Electrical Resistivity and Magnetic Susceptibility of 10% Pr-Doped YBa2Cu3O7-X At High Temperatures

Dr. Pawan Kumar1 and Dr. Vaibhav Jain2,*

1Department of Physics, A.S. College, Sikandrabad, Bulandshahr, UP,  India.

2,*Department of Physics, D.A.V.(P.G.) College, Bulandshahr, UP,  India.

 

A reversible transition was observed at around 650°C in both dc electrical resistivity (ρ) and dc magnetic susceptibility (χ) measurements. The transition was characterized by a shoulder-like increment in the p-T curve and a sudden change in the temperature gradient of χ, which is interpreted as the orthorhombic-to-tetragonal transition.

Keywords: Electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, phase transition.

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Comparative Efficacy of Anthelmintic Resistance in Goat in Sylhet, Bangladesh – Dr. Suman Kumar Singh*, Prof. Dr. Md. Rafiqul Islam and Dr. Md. Tanvir Hasan.

Comparative Efficacy of Anthelmintic Resistance in Goat in Sylhet, Bangladesh

Dr. Suman Kumar Singh1,*, Prof. Dr. Md. Rafiqul Islam2 and Dr. Md. Tanvir Hasan3

1,*Department of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Bangladesh. Email : modern_suman@yahoo.com

2Chairman, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Bangladesh.

3Department of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Bangladesh.

 

A study is conducted to determine and compare the efficacy of different anthelmintics against gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected goats in Sylhet goverment goat development farm. About 60 male goats are divided into four groups of 15 animals each: the 1st group served as the untreated control, the 2nd was treated with albendazole, the 3rd with levamisole and the 4th with ivermectin. Faecal samples are collected on day 0 before treatment and again day on 12 post treatment. Efficacy for each anthelmintic is determined by the Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT). About 100% efficacy against strongyle and Trichuris sp. is recorded in goats treated with albendazole and ivermectin. On the contrary, low efficacy of 86.7% is observed in goats treated with levamisol. Likewise, low efficacy of 66.7%, 40% and 46.7% against Moniezia sp. is recorded in goats treated with albendzole, levamisol and ivermectin, respectively. Coprocultures from all both pre and post-treatment samples revealed the pre-dominance of Haemonchus sp. The results of the study showed the presence of inverse relationship between the body condition score and their respective mean EPG (R2 = 0.99), suggesting the negative effect of parasitic load on the performance of goats. A questionnaire survey conducted to gather information on methods of control practices of nematodes of goats revealed lack of basic awareness among owners of goats about the best use and efficacy of anthelmintics. In addition, it indicated that farmers in the study area apply many practices that may lower the efficacy of anthelmintics and favor the emergence of anthelmintic resistance. Benzimidazoles group of anthelmintics were reported to be used at the most frequency followed by imidazothiazoles and the avermectins are used at lowest frequency.

Keywords: Anthelmintics, Gastrointestinal nematodes, Albendazole, Levamisol, Ivermectin, Faec`al Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT), Strongyle and Trichuris sp., Moniezia sp., Haemonchus sp.

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Identification and Diagnostic Procedure of Gastrointestinal Nematode Egg Based on EPG Method on Cattle, Sylhet, Bangaladesh – Dr. Md. Tanvir Hasan*, Dr. Suman kumar Singh and Prof. Dr. Md. Rafiqul Islam.

Identification and Diagnostic Procedure of Gastrointestinal Nematode Egg Based on EPG Method on Cattle, Sylhet, Bangaladesh

Dr. Md. Tanvir Hasan1,*, Dr. Suman kumar Singh2 and Prof. Dr. Md. Rafiqul Islam3

1,*DVM, MS in Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Bangladesh. Email: hasan.tanvir27@gmail.com

2DVM, MS in Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Bangladesh. Email: modern_suman@yahoo.com

 3Chairman, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Bangladesh. Email:dr.rafiqsau@gmail.com

 

A study was conducted to determine Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) egg count in faeces based on McMaster technique (EPG method) in naturally infected cattle around Sylhet Agricultural University. About 60 cattle were selected and divided into three groups of 20 animals each: the 1st group was treated with albendazole, the 2nd group was treated with levamisole and the 3rd with ivermectin. Faecal samples were collected on day 0 before treatment and again day on 12 post treatment. Pre Treatment Mean EPG±SE for albendazole group was 850±18.137, levamisole group was 650±22.064 and ivermectin group was 550±16.623. After post treatment we got Mean EPG±SE for albendazole group was 100±8.885, levamisole group was 50±8.885 and ivermectin group was 200±17.770. After treatment with albendazole, levamisole and ivermectin it reduced EPG count significantly (p<0.001). Further detailed investigations are necessary to clarify the current status in different agro ecology, species of animals and management systems.

Keywords: Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN), McMaster Technique (EPG Method).

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The Prevalence of Clinical Diseases in Dogs of Sylhet Sadar, Bangladesh – Dr. Suman Kumar Singh*, Prof. Dr. Md. Rafiqul Islam and Dr. Md. Tanvir Hasan.

The Prevalence of Clinical Diseases in Dogs of Sylhet Sadar, Bangladesh

Dr. Suman Kumar Singh1,*, Prof. Dr. Md. Rafiqul Islam2 and Dr. Md. Tanvir Hasan3

1,*Department of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Bangladesh. Email : modern_suman@yahool.com

2Chairman, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Bangladesh.

3Department of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Bangladesh.

 

A case control study is conducted to ascertain the prevalence of Dog diseases of 511 pet dogs presented to the Sylhet Veterinary Hospital and Veterinary clinics of Sylhet Agricultural University, during the one year period from June 2013 – June 2014. 7 categories were recorded in these pet dogs and their variation in prevalence was analyzed on the basis of age and sex. Age wise prevalence included, at the age of 0-6 months Canine Parvovirus Infection/Canine Parvovirus Enteritis (CPV) (33.33%), Canine Distemper or Hard Pad Disease (CD) (5.69%), Rabies (4.88%), Infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) (5.69%), Tetanus (4.06%), Skin Diseases (35.77%), Gastro Intestinal Parasites (8.94%). At 7-12 months CPV (37.67%), CD (6.16%), Rabies (5.48%), ICH (4.11%), Tetanus (4.79%), Skin Diseases (31.50%), Gastro Intestinal Parasites (8.22%). At the age above 12 months CPV (11.16%), CD (5.37%), Rabies (19.00%), ICH (10.33%), Tetanus (7.02%), Skin Diseases (9.50%), Gastro Intestinal Parasites (14.46%). Sex wise prevalence included, in female disease prevalence of CPV (21.39%), CD (6.47%), Rabies (7.46%), ICH (6.97%), Tetanus (5.47%), Skin Diseases (22.88%), Gastro Intestinal Parasites (13.93%) and, in male disease prevalence of CPV (25.80%), CD (5.16%), Rabies (14.51%), ICH (7.74%), Tetanus (5.80%), Skin Diseases (21.61%), Gastro Intestinal Parasites (9.68%). The prevalence of the diseases of one year study period from high to low rates included- CPV (24.07%), Skin Diseases (22.11%), Rabies (11.74%), Gastro Intestinal Parasites (11.35%), ICH (7.44%), CD (5.67%) and Tetanus (5.67%).

Keywords: Canine Parvovirus Infection/Canine Parvovirus Enteritis (CPV), Canine Distemper or Hard Pad Disease (CD), Infectious canine hepatitis (ICH).

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Biochemical consideration of HsCRP as a bond cursor to metabolic Syndrome – Himanshu Tyagi*, Vishal Modgil and Shashank Tyagi.

Biochemical consideration of HsCRP as a bond cursor to metabolic Syndrome

Himanshu Tyagi1,*, Vishal Modgil2 and Shashank Tyagi3

1,*Ph.D. Scholar, Medical Biochemistry, Singhania University(Raj), India.

2Department of Medicine,  Shivalik Hospital, Ghaziabad, India.

3Muzaffarnagar  Medical College, India.

 

Metabolic syndrome has generated a great deal of interest in recent years for researchers in India. The role of the acute phase protein Hs-CRP as a link marker to Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in Indians is significant. Whose plasma concentration increases by 25% or more during inflammatory disorders.  Studies have shown that elevated level of this protein can lead to an increased risk of hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) as well as metabolic syndrome. The MetS is a clustering of components that reflect over nutrition, sedentary lifestyles and resultant excess adiposity. Metabolic Syndrome is posing a major public health challenge to the health systems in developed and developing countries.  This study is an attempt to see the role of biochemical markers such as High Sensitive C reactive Protein (Hs-CRP) & Blood glucose in Metabolic Syndrome in study cases of Indian population.  The 405 study subjects aged between 25-65 yrs from general population in Ghaziabad (U.P), India, were taken, who attended the hospital for general checkup. HsCRP, Lipid profile and Blood Glucose of subjects were evaluated. On application of ATP 3rd criteria on the screened subject patients, they are classified. Our study found that the number of subjects having MetS was 173 (42.71% of total). In the subgroup of metabolic syndrome with diabetes, the total number of subjects was 105 (25.92%) in which age wise distribution was 26 (6.41%) in 25-45 yrs and 79 (19.50%) in 45-65 yrs. In the second subgroup of metabolic syndrome without diabetes total number of subjects was 68 (16.79%) in which age wise distribution was 16 (3.95%) in 25-45 yrs and 52 (12.83%) in 45-65 yrs. The study proposes the inclusion of biochemical parameter HsCRP in the criteria for defining cases of metabolic syndrome, so that more metabolic syndrome cases can be picked up at earliest. This issue is especially pertinent for the Indian patient population in whom cardiovascular disease is becoming increasingly common in both sexes and in age group of 25-65 yrs. There should be emphasis on detection of metabolic syndrome and intensification of targeted preventive strategies. In this study; there is strong evidence that Hs-CRP should be included in the case definition criteria or diagnostic criteria of Metabolic Syndrome. The study proposes the inclusion of biochemical parameter Hs-CRP in the criteria for defining cases of metabolic syndrome in Indians. So that more cases of Metabolic Syndrome can be picked up at earliest.

Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), High Sensitive C reactive Protein (Hs-CRP).

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Maintaining the Environmental Flow Requirement’s of a River to sustain It’s Ecological Balance: A Challenge – Lt. Col. Manish Kothari.

Maintaining the Environmental Flow Requirement’s of a River to sustain It’s Ecological Balance: A Challenge

Lt. Col. Manish Kothari

M.Tech (IInd year), WRD & M Department, IIT, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India.

 

Water has been over-exploited by the human society, which has not only drained the vital river resources but has also exhausted of the ancient aquifers that are hard to replenish. The flows of the world’s rivers are increasingly being modified through impoundments such as dams and weirs, abstractions for agriculture and urban water supply, drainage return flows, maintenance of flows for navigation, and structures for flood control. These interventions have caused significant alteration of flow regimes mainly by reducing the total flow and affecting the regime and seasonality of flows. It is estimated that more than 60 % of the world’s rivers are fragmented by hydrological alterations.

Environmental flows describe the quantity, quality and timing of water flows required to sustain riverine ecosystems and the human livelihoods that is dependent on these ecosystems.

It is a great challenge for water manager’s to account for natural differences in flow regime among rivers, understanding the importance of environment flow for the protection of freshwater biodiversity, estuarine ecosystems and maintenance of services that rivers provide. In the absence of detailed information of environmental flow requirements for rivers, it is proposed that a generic approach to be ascertained that incorporates key aspects of natural flow regime for the rivers, which can be validated with empirical biological data and other information. It is assumed that such approach can narrow up the gap between simple hydrological “guidelines” and more comprehensive “environmental flow requirements”.

Keywords: Environmental flow, Riverine ecosystem, Estuarine ecosystem.

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Dielectric and Magnetic Study of CNTs-Fe3O4 Composites – Annveer* and Ritu.

Dielectric and Magnetic Study of CNTs-Fe3O4 Composites

Annveer1,* and  Ritu2

1Assistant Professor, Physics Dept., N.R.E.C. (PG) College, Khurja (Bulandshahr), UP, India.

2S.S.V. (PG) College, Hapur, UP, India.

 

A comparative study of dielectric and magnetic properties of Fe3O4 and CNTs-Fe3O4 composite has been reported in paper. In this, CNTs-Fe3O4 composites have been prepared by dispersing the CNTs in ionic (Fe+2/Fe+3, in 1:2) solution via chemical co-precipitation route. The dielectric properties of composites have been investigated in 101-106 Hz frequency range. The saturation magnetization (Ms) of CNTs-Fe3O4 composite is reduced. The dielectric permittivity of composites with increasing weight fraction of CNTs is also reduced which may be due to the space polarization of charges accumulated via conducting channels of CNTs.

Keyword: Composite materials, Chemical vapour deposition (CVD), Magnetic materials, Magnetic properties, Dielectric properties.

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Generalized Hypergeometric Forms of Some Elliptic Type Integrals – Nadeem Ahmad.

Generalized Hypergeometric Forms of Some Elliptic Type Integrals

Nadeem Ahmad

Department of Bio sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia nagar, New Delhi, India.

The study of elliptic type integrals has been important due to their applications in certain problems involving computations of radiation field. In an arbitrary angular distribution law the radiation field off axis from a circular disc radiated. In this paper I have developed some generalized hypergeometric forms of elliptic type integrals in complete and incomplete integrals.

Keywords: elliptic type integrals, complete elliptic type integrals, incomplete elliptic type integrals.

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ZIGBEE: A Wireless Technology – Dr. Vaibhav Jain.

 ZIGBEE: A Wireless Technology

Dr. Vaibhav Jain

Physics Department, DAV (PG) College, Bulandshahr, UP, India.

 

The IEEE 802.15.4 standard offers a new wireless technology aimed at lower power consumption, low cost, low latency and short range communication. “Zigbee” is termed as the commercial name for this standard. This paper presents a review of IEEE802.15.4 standard with a discussion of the MAC layer. Different network topologies have been presented and a comparison of Zigbee with Bluetooth has been given in detail.

Keywords: Zigbee, LR-WPAN, network topologies.

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Analysis and Design of MOSFET based Amplifier in Common Source Configurations – Dr. Vaibhav Jain.

Analysis and Design of MOSFET based Amplifier in Common Source Configurations

Dr. Vaibhav Jain

Physics Department, DAV (PG) College, Bulandshahr, UP, India.

 

This paper presents the design of amplifier in Common Source configuration. It also presents its input and output characteristics, time domain analysis and frequency response of the amplifier. The voltage gain of amplifier is designed by choosing appropriate value of VGS in saturation region in the input output voltage characteristics. After choosing that value we applied an input sinusoidal signal and check the output waveform and compare it with the theoretical results.

 

Keywords: CMOS Analog Integrated Circuits, T-Spice, Voltage Swing, Overdrive.

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To Assess the Quality of Groundwater and its Implication on Human Health in Niwai Tehsil, Tonk, Rajasthan, India – Bhagwan Sahai Yadav and Dr. Abha Garg.

To Assess the Quality of Groundwater and its Implication on Human Health in Niwai Tehsil, Tonk, Rajasthan, India

Bhagwan Sahai Yadav1,* and Dr. Abha Garg2

1,*Research Scholar, Dr. K.N. Modi University, Niwai, Tonk, Rajasthan, India

2Professor, Dr. K.N. Modi University, Niwai, Tonk, Rajasthan, India

There is a severe fluoride problem is Niwai Tehsil of Tonk district. Populaces are suffering from dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis. So that physico-chemical study of 80 villages was done. The ground water samples collected in clean polyethylene bottles were analyzed for different parameters such as pH, Total Alkalinity, Fluoride (F), Nitrate (NO3), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Chloride (Cl), Total Hardness (TH), Electrical Conductivity (EC), Ca-H, Mg-H by using standard techniques. Results showed that fluoride was found even up to the alarming limit of 14.62ppm. Minimum (1.10ppm) and maximum (14.62ppm) concentration of Fluoride was observed from Khendewat and Seepura villages respectively.

Key words: Dental fluorosis, Skeletal fluorosis, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS).

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Recovering Lead Metal from Lak Mine Lead Concentrate by Ferric Chloride Leaching – Dr. Ezatollah Mozaffari, Majid Mohseni and Elham Abaie.

Recovering Lead Metal from Lak Mine Lead Concentrate by Ferric Chloride Leaching

Dr. Ezatollah Mozaffari1,*, Majid Mohseni2 and Elham Abaie3

1,*Assistant Prof., Imam Khomeini International University, University Blvd., Qazvin, Iran

2,3Research Scholar, Imam Khomeini International University, University Blvd., Qazvin, Iran

 

Lead concentrate from Lak lead mine in Iran was processed via leaching method. In this method some of the undesirable conditions such as long term melting and roasting and sulfur gas emission prevailing in the conventional pyrometallurgical lead extraction method are omitted. Therefore, it is more environmentally friendly to produce lead by leaching method. The use of ferric chloride and sodium chloride as leaching reagents at various temperatures was examined. It has been shown that 99.8% lead and 82.2% silver can be extracted from sulfide concentrates. According to this research, the optimum conditions for Lak mine concentrate are: Ferric Chloride: 45gm/lit, Sodium Chloride: 200gm/lit. temperature: 70°C and the leaching time: between 9 to 12 minutes.

Keywords: Leaching method, Sulfur emission, Lead concentrate.

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Prevalence of Wasting in Children under the Age of Five Years in Fazilka in Punjab-Dr. Anil Gupta.

Prevalence of Wasting in Children under the Age of Five Years in Fazilka in Punjab

Dr. Anil Gupta

Reader, Deptt. of Biochem., Eklavya Dental College & Hospital, Kotputli, Rajasthan, India.

                     

Today, malnutrition in children is the key issue of the world. Children below the age of five years constitute about 13% of the population in india. This health problem has high occurrence in the children in developing countries. The study was executed in city Fazilka, in Punjab, encompassed total 440 children, selected through random, multistage sampling technique. Study displayed overall prevalence of (13%) ‘wasting’ in children under age of five years, along with differential prevalence of 11% (27/240), 15% (20/127), 15% (11/73) ‘wasting’ in children in Schools, Anganwadi and Slum areas correspondingly.

Keywords:  Malnutrition, Wasting.

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Electrical Properties of BiFeO3 – BaTiO3 Ceramics-S. Shankar and Manish Kumar.

Electrical Properties of BiFeO3 – BaTiO3 Ceramics

S. Shankar1 and Manish Kumar2, *

1 Department of Physics, ARSD college, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India.

2,* Department of Ceramic Engineering, IIT, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.

BiFeO3– BaTiO3 ceramicshave been synthesized via solid state reaction method. The X-ray studies of structural parameters reveal that BiFeO3– BaTiO3 (BFO-BT) solid solutions undergo structural transformations from rhombhohedral to cubic system. The unit cell dimensions increases with higher doping of higher ionic radii dopant (BT). The electrical properties for different composition x=0.10,0.15 and 0.30 in (1-x)BFO-xBT ceramics were studied in the frequency range 1kHz-1MHz at room temperature. It is found that the BFO with higher BT concentrations show higher electrical resistivity as well as capacitance. The decrease in electrical resistance and capacitance has been observed with the increase of frequency of the applied field. The larger dispersion in resistivity is due to dominance of intra-well hopping over inter-well hopping indicating a strong dependence of material properties on BT doping.

Keywords: Capacitance. Resistivity. X-ray diffraction. SEM.

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Mascot of Wetland: Cranes- Sulakshana Darapuri.

Mascot of Wetland: Cranes

Sulakshana Darapuri

Research Scholar, Department of Zoology, Mewar University, Gangrar, Chittorgarh, Rajasthan, India.

 

The Cranes are among the most ancient and distinctive families of bird on earth. At present there are approximately 15 species of Cranes whereas the fossil record includes at least 17 extinct species. No Crane’s species has been extinct within record history since 1600. For thousands of years the Hindu people of India have revered Cranes. The length positioning of the trachea are critical features of Cranes anatomy and shape the distinctive voices of the various species. All species of Crane dance. Wary residents of wetlands and grasslands, Cranes have also long symbolised natural grandeur and the special quality of wild places. Like many other species of wild life, Cranes have also been subjected to pressure of human population growth and development. The population is declined for various species of Crane have been attributed mainly to loss of habitats and persecution by humans. Under the new categories eleven of the fifteen species are likely to be listed as Threatened (which includes the categories Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable) by the International Union Conservation of Nature and Natural resources (IUCN). A number of captive breeding centres are being established in various countries for the endangered Cranes.

Keywords: Cranes, trachea, Wetland, International Union Conservation of Nature and Natural resources (IUCN).

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The Quality of Groundwater in Jaipur Region with Emphasis to Fluoride Concentration- Bhagwan Sahai Yadav and Dr. Abha Garg.

The Quality of Groundwater in Jaipur Region with Emphasis to Fluoride Concentration

Bhagwan Sahai Yadav1,* and Dr. Abha Garg2

1,*Research Scholar, Department of Chemistry, Dr. K. N. Modi University, Newai, Tonk, Rajasthan, India.

2Professor, Department of Chemistry, Dr. K. N. Modi University, Newai, Tonk, Rajasthan, India.

 

The problem of high fluoride in groundwater is one of the most important health related geo-environmental issue. It is beneficial up to certain limits but excess intake (i.e. >1.5mg/L) may cause fluorosis. Fluoride in groundwater was studied in Sanganer tehsil of Jaipur district. 18 villages were under surveillance. Groundwater samples were periodically collected and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters including Fluoride (F), pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), total hardness, Calcium (Ca2+), Chloride (Cl) and alkalinity. The analytical results revealed considerable variations in the chemical composition of water samples. Fluoride concentration varies from 0.20 to 6.45 mg/L.

Keywords: Water quality, Fluoride, Fluorosis.

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Strongly NA – Continuous Mappings-Vinshu, Dr. Bhopal Singh Sharma and Arvind Kumar.

Strongly NA – Continuous Mappings

Vinshu1,*, Dr. Bhopal Singh Sharma2 and Arvind Kumar3

1,*Research Scholar, Department of Mathematics, N.R.E.C. College, Khurja, UP, India.

2Associate Professor, Department of Mathematics, N.R.E.C. College, Khurja, UP, India.

3Research Scholar, Department of Mathematics, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.

 

This paper introduces a new class of mappings, namely, strongly na-continuous mappings. This class lies properly between the class of super I-continuous mappings and the class of strongly continuous mappings due to Levine. Some characterizations and basic properties of these mappings are obtained. The relationships among these mappings and some other stronger forms of continuity are also investigated.

Keywords: θ – closure, semi-open, semi-interior, strongly na-continuous and feebly open.

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The Detection of Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria especially those Producing Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL)-Tuhiram Dixit, Dr. Mukta Sharma and Nalin Sajwan

The Detection of Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria especially those Producing Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL)

Tuhiram Dixit1,*, Dr. Mukta Sharma2 and Nalin Sajwan3

Technologist, Asian Institute of Medical Sciences, Faridabad, Haryana, India.

2Department of Microbiology, S.B.B. Dental College and Research Centre, Ghaziabad, U.P., India.

3Department  of Microbiology,  S.G.P.G.I.,  Lucknow, India.

 

Over the last few decades, β-lactams are the most widely used and favored antimicrobials worldwide, because of their efficacy, broad spectra and low toxicity. They inhibit the bacterial penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which are the enzymes that catalyze the final cross-linking of the bacterial cell wall polymer, peptidoglycan. However, due to heavy use of β-lactams antibiotics, bacteria developed various mechanism of resistance. Modification or substitution of the PBPs is important mechanism in gram-positive cocci, while production of β-lactamases is main cause of resistance among gram-negative bacilli. Mostly plasmid harbors the resistance gene and therefore, is crucial in disseminating resistance into previously susceptible species. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s there was a relentless rise in reports of resistance to β-lactams as a consequence of the selection of bacteria that produce β-lactamases.

Keywords: Penicillin-Binding Protein (PBP), β-lactams antibiotics, Gram-positive cocci, Gram-negative bacilli.

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Variation in Hall Coefficient with E-M Field of ZnTe Thin Film prepared by vacuum evaporation – Dr. Vaibhav Jain.

Variation in Hall Coefficient with E-M Field of ZnTe Thin Film prepared by vacuum evaporation

Dr. Vaibhav Jain

Deptt. of Physics, D.A.V.(P.G.) College, Bulandshahr, UP, India.

 

Thin film of ZnTe was prepared by vacuum evaporation method. The variation in Hall coefficient RH of prepared thin film was recorded with electromagnetic field of different frequencies (2-20 MHz at 2 MHz, steps) and of 5mV, and l0mV amplitudes. The statistical analysis of obtained data was done by R-software which showed that the value of Hall coefficient decreases significantly with increment in frequency of E-M field.

Keywords: Vacuum evaporation method, Hall coefficient, R-software.

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Fabrication of Organic Light Emitting Diodes on Nano-structured Indium Tin Oxide-R.K. Sharma, Dr. Vaibhav Jain, Dr. Arunesh Yadav and Ruchi Agarwal

Fabrication of Organic Light Emitting Diodes on Nano-structured Indium Tin Oxide

R.K. Sharma1,*, Dr. Vaibhav Jain2, Dr. Arunesh Yadav3 and Ruchi Agarwal4
1,*Research Scholor, Physics Departmant, Sri Venketeshwara University, Meerut, India.
2Assist. Professor, Physics Department, DAV (PG) College, Bulandshahr, India.
3Assist. Professor, Physics Department, ITS Engineering College, Greater Noida, India.
4Assist. Professor, Physics Department, Accurate Engineering College, Greater Noida, India.

 

We have fabricated Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) on nano-structured indium tin oxide films. The enhancement in extraction efficiency by a factor of 30% was found comparable to other expansive techniques for the fabrication of indium tin oxide layer. The electroluminescence spectra at viewing angles from normal to the substrates up to 600 off normal remain almost unchanged and does not show the angle dependence observed for other extraction efficiency enhancement techniques. The emission spectrum was also found to be stable with time for these OLEDs. The spectral uniformity with angle and time with enhanced extraction efficiency and cheap deposition technique could be of great interest for the application of down converted OLED.

Keywords: Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs), Electroluminescence (EL) spectra.

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Modeling and Simulation of a Grid Interactive Photovoltaic Power Plant-Dr. Rohit Verma

Modeling and Simulation of a Grid Interactive Photovoltaic Power Plant

 Dr. Rohit Verma
Associate Professor, NPTI, Faridabd, India.
 
 

This paper presents a simulation model of the electrical part of a grid interactive photovoltaic system. The model contains a detailed representation of the main components of the system that are the solar array, 3 phase inverter and LC filter inverter control circuit and load. A proper control of the DC/AC inverter is developed in order to synchronize the system to the grid. The grid interface inverter transfers the energy drawn from the photovoltaic (PV) array into the grid by keeping common DC coupling voltage constant. This research paper also focuses on the different PV technologies (amorphous silicon, polycrystalline) and their effect to the system in terms of energy output. A simulation model has been developed with the help of mathematical equations and its output has been verified with working solar PV plant. This paper can be useful for the PV power plant designers to analyze the output of the power plant by using the simulation model. This model is a simplified approach of the system’s individual modules.

Keywords: Grid interface inverter, PV array, Solar PV Plant.

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River/Canal Bank Water in Terms of Transmitting the Hazardous Microorganism in Human Population-A.S. Shishodia, Mukta Sharma, Ajit Joshi and Dilshad Ali

River/Canal Bank Water in Terms of Transmitting the Hazardous Microorganism in Human Population

A.S. Shishodia1,*, Mukta Sharma2, Ajit Joshi3 and Dilshad Ali4
1,*,3Department of Microbiology, Mewar University, Chittorgarh, Rajasthan, India.
2Department of Microbiology, S.B.B. Dental College and Research Centre, Ghaziabad, U.P., India.
4Department of Microbiology, C.C.S. University, Meerut, U.P., India.

The aim of present study is to determine the load of pathogenic microorganism and possible disease potentials of the water sources to prevent possible disease outbreak for the inhabitants. A total number of 50 water samples were collected from different river/canal bank sources and were subjected to standard microbiological analysis. The result of total heterotrophic bacterial count (cfu/ml) ranged between 21×105 to 16.6×106. Different bacterial isolates were microscopically and biochemically characterized as: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Streptococcus spp., and Proteus spp. In 50 water samples, 40(80.0%) samples were positive for Escherichia coli, 35(70.0%) for Staphylococcus spp., 25(50.0%) for Klebsiella spp., 25(50.0%) for Streptococcus spp., and 15(30.0%) for Proteus spp., respectively. This showed that Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp. occurred highest (80% and 70%) in water samples followed by Klebsiella and Streptococcus spp. (50.0%) while the lowest occurrence was recorded by Proteus spp. (30.0%), respectively. The results show that river/canal bank water sources are not free from enteric pathogens and expose users to diseases like dysentery, diarrhoea, skin, soft tissue, respiratory, urinary or respiratory tract infections, endovascular to wound infections etc.

Keywords: Pathogenic microorganism, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Streptococcus spp. and Proteus spp..

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Effects of low Amperage Current on the Protein Pattern of Potential Pathogen-Tuhiram Dixit, Dr. Mukta Sharma and Mayur Sharma

Effects of low Amperage Current on the Protein Pattern of Potential Pathogen

Tuhiram Dixit1,*, Dr. Mukta Sharma2 and Mayur Sharma3
1,*Technologist, Asian Institute of Medical Sciences, Faridabad, Haryana, India.
2Department of Microbiology, S.B.B. Dental College and Research Centre, Ghaziabad, U.P., India.
3Department  of Microbiology,  S.B.S.P.G.I.,  Dehradun, India.

 

Electrical current is known for bactericidal activity by influencing the inhibition of biological processes of organism at the cellular level. Electrical current has been reported to alleviate pain, probably by altering endorphin concentration, and speed up wound healing by increasing cell proliferation. Infection is a major clinical complication associated with the use of central venous catheters (CVCs). Treatment of these infections by antibiotics is relatively expensive. Not always successful and frequency necessitates catheter removal. Bacteria attached to device such as biofilms are quite typical, resistant both to antimicrobial agent and to host defense. Despite the fact that endogenous bacteria are beneficial to the host in their natural habitat (e.g. prevent the overgrowth of opportunistic pathogens and colonization by antibiotic resistant bacteria), many of these micro-organism are potentially pathogenic.

Keywords: Inhibition, Endorphin Concentration, Cell Proliferation, Central Venous Catheters (CVCs), Antimicrobial Agent, Endogenous Bacteria.

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Preliminary Simulation Results of Selective Emitter based Silicon Solar Cell-Anuj Kumar

Preliminary Simulation Results of Selective Emitter based Silicon Solar Cell

Anuj Kumar
Department of Physics, Keshav mahavidyalaya, Delhi University, New Delhi, India.

The lower cost solar cell reduces prices per watt, that can be achieved by the etches back method, so we have done single time Phosphors Diffusion on uniform mesh p-type Silicon wafer to reduce diffusion price but not at the cost of its efficiency. A n-type diffusion has been carried out on a fine mash p-type Silicone wafer having thicknesses 300 µm, resistivity 1 Ώ-cm, by using P2O5 gas as a diffusion source at constant diffusion parameters like temperature, source concentration and diffusion time to make Selective Emitter Silicon solar cells by using etches back method, in which etch active area behave as a conventional solar cell. We also screened different parameters of a solar cell under AM 1.5 spectra using SSUPRM4 a tool in advance semi-conductor device simulator Silvaco.

Keywords: Etch back, SSUPRM4.

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Intelligent Method for Resource Allocation in Grid Computing Using Multi Agent-Bhagwat M. Fulmante, Raj Singh, Abhijieet Kulshreshtha and Umashankar Sharma

Intelligent Method for Resource Allocation in Grid Computing Using Multi Agent

 
Bhagwat M. Fulmante1,*, Raj Singh2, Abhijieet Kulshreshtha3 and Umashankar Sharma4
1,*Research Scholar, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur, India.
2Research Scholar, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur, India.
3Professor, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur, India.
4Professor RJIT, BSF, Tekanpur, Gwalior, M.P., India.

 

 

In emerging technologies resource management is the key problem. This paper describes how to reduce the search time for the best available resources and assure instant provisioning of the lately added resources to the grid thereby using Artificial Intelligence, Multi-agent and Case Base Reasoning (CBR). To overcome the overhead of resource availability in grid computing, we have identified the formula which can efficiently identify the available nodes in the grid environment. The algorithm will efficiently search the nodes available as per requirement of the request of resources and searching is faster as compare to other existing algorithms. We have designed an algorithm which will identify the nodes available and the ideal node can also utilize. Each node will be equally loaded and resource allocation will be efficiently done. This approach significantly reduces the computational time of resource allocation. The Multi–agents has been used for decision making, selection and allocation faster for improving the productivity by reducing the searching time for resource allocation in grid environment. Each agent is assigned with some important task and will be communicating with other agents as input for next activity.

Keywords: Case Base Reasoning (CBR), Grid Environment, Resource Allocation and Multi-agent.

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Biochemical Parameter of Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) as a Link Marker to Metabolic Syndrome-Himanshu Tyagi, Vishal Modgil and Mahendra Nath

Biochemical Parameter of Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) as a Link Marker to Metabolic Syndrome

Himanshu Tyagi1,*, Vishal Modgil2 and Mahendra Nath3
1,*Ph.D. Scholor, Medical Biochemistry, Shivalik Hospital, Ghaziabad, India.
2Department of Medicine, Shivalik Hospital, Ghaziabad, India.
3L.L.R. Medical College, Meerut, India.

 

The role of the Enzyme Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) as a link marker to Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in Indians is significant. The MetS is a clustering of components that reflect over nutrition, sedentary lifestyles and resultant excess adiposity. Metabolic Syndrome is posing a major public health challenge to the health systems in developed and developing countries.  This study is an attempt to see the role of biochemical markers such as GGT & Blood glucose in Metabolic Syndrome in study cases of Indian population.  The 405 study subjects aged between 25-65 yrs from general population in Ghaziabad, India, were taken, who attended the hospital for general checkup. GGT and Blood Glucose of subjects were evaluated. On application of ATP 3rd criteria on the screened subject patients, they are classified. Our study found that the number of subjects having MetS was 173 (42.71% of total). In the subgroup of metabolic syndrome with diabetes, the total number of subjects was 105 (25.92%) in which age wise distribution was 26 (6.41%) in 25-45 yrs and 79 (19.50%) in 45-65 yrs. In the second subgroup of metabolic syndrome without diabetes total number of subjects was 68 (16.79%) in which age wise distribution was 16 (3.95%) in 25-45 yrs and 52 (12.83%) in 45-65 yrs. The study proposes the inclusion of biochemical parameter GGT in the criteria for defining cases of metabolic syndrome, so that more metabolic syndrome cases can be picked up at earliest. This issue is especially pertinent for the Indian patient population in whom cardiovascular disease is becoming increasingly common in both sexes and in age group of 25-65 yrs. There should be emphasis on detection of metabolic syndrome and intensification of targeted preventive strategies. In this study; there is strong evidence that GGT should be included in the case definition criteria or diagnostic criteria of Metabolic Syndrome. The study proposes the inclusion of biochemical parameter GGT in the criteria for defining cases of metabolic syndrome in Indians. So that more cases of Metabolic Syndrome can be picked up at earliest.

Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT).

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Macro Cyclic Antibiotics as Chiral Supramolecular Receptors for Enantioslective Sensing in Biological Samples- Dr. Rooma Tyagi

­­­Macro Cyclic Antibiotics as Chiral Supramolecular Receptors for Enantioslective Sensing in Biological Samples

Dr. Rooma Tyagi
Chemistry department, S.S.V. (P.G.) College, Hapur, U.P., INDIA.

 

Enantioselective Potentiometric Membrane electrodes (EMPEs) based on macroyclic antibiotics derivative were proposed for determination of L-and D-enantiomers of glyceric acid in serum samples. The linear concentration ranges for the proposed sensor were in the F mol/L to P mol/L magnitude order. The sensor proved high reliability for the enantioanalysis of L & D glyeric acid in serum samples.

Keywords: Enantioselective potentiometric determination, Macro cyclic Antibiotics derivative and Biological samples.

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Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Programme of India: Proposed Model for A State-Dr. Rohit Verma

Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Programme of India:  Proposed Model for A State

Dr. Rohit Verma
Associate Professor, NPTI, Faridabad, Haryana, India.

 

The Accelerated Power Development & Reform Programme (APDRP) was launched in February 2001 by the Union government of India to promote the distribution reforms. But the APDRP could not achieve the desired goals within the stipulated time. Government of India rethought its course of action and came up with another ambitious project, Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Program (RAPDRP) to overcome the shortcomings of APDRP and to reduce the Aggregate Technical and Commercial (AT&C) losses to 15% by implementing projects within 18 to 24 months.  Restructured APDRP was approved in July 2008 for implementation in the 11th five year plan. The focus of the programme is on actual, demonstrable performance in terms of sustained loss reduction. This paper analyses the major reasons behind the failure of APDRP and discusses the proposed scheme of R-APDRP and its challenges. The paper also provides a model for R-APDRP scheme for a sample State of India. This paper may be a helpful tool for policy maker and state government.

Keywords: Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Program (RAPDRP), Aggregate Technical and Commercial (AT&C) losses, Power sector Reforms.

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Effect of Growth Conditions on Conductivity of Indium Tin Oxide Films-R.K. Sharma, Dr. Vaibhav Jain, Dr. Arunesh Yadav and Ruchi Agarwal.

Effect of Growth Conditions on Conductivity of Indium Tin Oxide Films

R.K. Sharma1,*, Dr. Vaibhav Jain2, Dr. Arunesh Yadav3 and Ruchi Agarwal4
1,*Research Scholor, Physics Departmant, Sri Venketeshwara University, Meerut, India.
2Assist. Professor, Physics Department, DAV (PG) College, Bulandshahr, India.
3Assist. Professor, Physics Department, ITS Engineering College, Greater Noida, India.
4Assist. Professor, Physics Department, Accurate Engineering College, Greater Noida, India.

 

Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were grown using radio frequency (RF) sputtering technique. Conductivity or sheet resistance of the ITO films grown by this technique depends on various conditions such as the post annealing temperature, substrate temperature and the composition of the gas used for the deposition. Current work presents the study on the variation of sheet resistance by varying the conditions of growth. All the parameters such as post annealing temperature, substrate temperature and composition of gas used were found to affect the sheet resistance of ITO films.

Keywords: Indium tin oxide (ITO) films, Radio Frequency (RF) sputtering technique.

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Thermodynamic Functions of 1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-2, 6-dioxopyrimidine-4-carboxylic Acid-Sushil Kumar and Dr. S.D. Sharma

Thermodynamic Functions of 

1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-2, 6-dioxopyrimidine-4-

carboxylic Acid

Sushil Kumar1,* and Dr. S.D. Sharma2
1,*Assistant Professor, SRM University, NCR campus Modinagar, India.
2Retd. Reader/Principal, D.N.P.G College, Meerut, India.

 

The statistical computation of an ideal gas state thermodynamic functions namely enthalpy, entropy, free energy, heat capacity of 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-2,6-dioxopyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid have been performed. These calculations have been made at a pressure of 1 atmosphere in the temperature range 100 °K to 1500 °K under rigid rotor harmonic oscillator approximation for 1 mole of perfect gas & on the basis of vibrational frequencies obtained from FTIR & Raman spectra & also with the help of moment of inertia.

Keywords: Enthalpy, Entropy, Free Energy, Heat Capacity, FTIR, Raman Spectra.

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ξ-Regular Spaces-M.C. Sharma, Poonam Sharma, Shobha Sharma and Mandeep Singh

ξ-Regular Spaces

M.C. Sharma1, Poonam Sharma2, Shobha Sharma3 and Mandeep Singh4,*
1, 2, 3Department of Mathematics, N.R.E.C. College, Khurja, U.P., India.
4,*Department of Mathematics, S.S. (P.G.) College Shikarpur, U.P., India.

The aim of this paper is to introduce and study a new class of regular space called ξ-regular spaces by using ξ-open sets introduced by R. Devi, S.N. Rajappriya, K.M. Swamy and H. Maki in Scientiae Mathematical Japonicae (2006) and obtained several properties of such a space. Moreover, we obtained some new characterizations and preservation theorems of ξ-regular spaces.

Keywords: ξ, ξ*, ξ**, gα, rgα-closed sets, ξ, ξ*, ξ**, gα, rgα-open sets, ξ-open, almost ξ-open, pre ξ-closed, ξg-closed, almost ξg-closed functions, ξ-regular spaces.

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Prospective Cohort Study to Evaluate Hyponatremia as a Sequela of Acute Renal Dysfunction in Cirrhosis of Liver – Dr. Anil Gupta.

Prospective Cohort Study to Evaluate Hyponatremia as a Sequela of Acute Renal Dysfunction in Cirrhosis of Liver

Dr. Anil Gupta

 Senior Lecturer, Deptt. of Physiology and Biochemistry, Eklavya dental College, Rajasthan, India.

 

Hyponateremia is a medical condition commonly seen in patient with progressive cirrhosis. The study was conducted on total 30 cirrhotic patients. Group 1 showed mean eGFR (93.9 ± 12 ml/min/1.73m2) by simplified MDRD equation, significantly (p<0.001) above reference value (75 ml/min/1.73m2) as agreed upon, lower normal value as per RIFLE classification. Group 2 showed mean eGFR (48.8 ± 14.7 ml/min/1.73m2) significantly (p<0.001) below the normal reference value.

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Metabolic Syndrome: The Prevalence of Mounting Public Health Problem in Ghaziabad, India – Himanshu Tyagi, Vishal Modgil and Mahendra Nath.

Metabolic Syndrome: The Prevalence of Mounting Public Health Problem in Ghaziabad, India

Himanshu Tyagi1,*, Vishal Modgil2 and Mahendra Nath3

1,*Ph.D. Scholor, Medical Biochemistry, Shivalik Hospital, Ghaziabad, India.

2Department of Medicine, Shivalik Hospital, Ghaziabad, India.

3L.L.R. Medical College, Meerut, India.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a name for a group of risk factors that occur together and increases the risk for coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. The MetS is a clustering of components that reflect over nutrition, sedentary lifestyles and resultant excess adiposity. Metabolic Syndrome is posing a major public health challenge to the health systems in developed and developing countries. The 405 study subjects aged between 25-65 yrs from general population in Ghaziabad, India, were taken, who attended the hospital for general checkup. Complete fasting lipid profile, Blood glucose, and Hs-CRP, Lp(a) and GGT, blood urea and Serum Creatinine of subjects were evaluated. On application of ATP 3rd criteria on the screened subject patients, they are classified. Our study found that the number of subjects having MetS was 173 (42.71% of total). In the subgroup of metabolic syndrome with diabetes, the total number of subjects was 105(25.92%) in which age wise distribution was 26 (6.41%) in 25-45 yrs and 79 (19.50%) in 45-65 yrs. In the second subgroup of metabolic syndrome without diabetes total number of subjects was 68 (16.79%) in which age wise distribution was 16 (3.95%) in 25-45 yrs and 52 (12.83%) in 45-65 yrs. The study proposes the inclusion of biochemical parameter Hs-CRP, Lp (a) and GGT in the criteria for defining cases of metabolic syndrome, so that more metabolic syndrome cases can be picked up at earliest. This issue is especially pertinent for the Indian patient population in whom cardiovascular disease is becoming increasingly common in both sexes and in age group of 25-65 yrs. There should be emphasis on detection of metabolic syndrome and intensification of targeted preventive strategies.

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Prospective Study to Evaluate Anemia and its Covariation with Hypoalbuminemia in Patients Suffering from Ascites Cirrhosis – Dr. Anil Gupta.

Prospective Study to Evaluate Anemia and its Covariation with Hypoalbuminemia in Patients Suffering from Ascites Cirrhosis

Dr. Anil Gupta

 Senior Lecturer, Deptt. of Physiology and Biochemistry, Eklavya dental College, Rajasthan, India.

 

Anemia is the reduction in quantity of haemoglobin pigment in circulating blood. It is the manifestation of chronic inflammation, infection or malignancy in the body. The study sample comprised of total 30 participants in two groups. The mean haemoglobin of cirrhotics (9.86 ± 1.8 mg/dl) was lesser in comparison to haemoglobin (13.09 ± 1.76 mg/dl) of controls significantly (p<0.0001). Further, sample t-test revealed a significant (p<0.0001) reduction in concentration of haemoglobin of cirrhotics at a cut off (13 mg/dl). The anemia in cirrhotics covariated significantly (p=0.05), with hypoalbuminemia, as revealed in Pearson’s coeffiecient of correlation (r=0.043).

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Assessment of Drinking Water Quality at three Intermediate Colleges and two Degree Colleges of Municipality of District Sambhal, U.P., India – Sushil Kumar and Himshikha Yadav.

Assessment of Drinking Water Quality at three Intermediate Colleges and two Degree Colleges of Municipality of District Sambhal, U.P., India

Sushil Kumar1,* and Himshikha Yadav2

1,*Asst. Prof. and Head, Department of Zoology,Govt. Degree College Sambhal, Moradabad, India.

2Asst. Prof. and Head, Department of Botany, Govt. Girls (P.G.) College, Bareilly, India,

 

The paper reports drinking water quality from three inter colleges and two degree colleges of Sambhal municipality. The quality of drinking water samples were assessed by examining various physico-chemical and biological parameters viz, colour, odour, taste, turbidity, pH, specific conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness,  chloride, fluoride, sulphate, nitrate, calcium, magnesium, dissolved oxygen (DO) and total coliforms. The analytical results were compared with drinking water standard (BIS-10500) prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi. The water quality in general found to be satisfactory but the level of total hardness, chloride, nitrate, and magnesium were slightly higher at some locations and coliforms contamination was also found in some of drinking water samples.

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Isolation and Partially Characterization of Bacteriocin Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Barley Beer – Dr. Mukta Sharma and Dr. Anandveer Singh.

Isolation and Partially Characterization of Bacteriocin Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Barley Beer

Dr. Mukta Sharma1,* and Dr. Anandveer Singh2

1,*Prof. & Head, Departt. of Microbiology, S.B.B. Dental College & Research Centre, Masuri, Ghaziabad, India.

2Department of Chemistry, BSA College, Mathura, India.

 

Twenty lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from barley beer, six of these beer isolates were observed to secrete the inhibitory compounds into the cell-free filtrate with optimal production occurring in the late exponential growth phase. The inhibitory spectra of these isolates included various Gram’s positive and Gram’s negative bacteria and a variety of beer-spoiling bacteria. Based on standard biochemical and microbiological tests, these isolates were tentatively identified as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus paracasei. These inhibitory isolates were inactivated by treatment with proteolytic enzymes indication that the inhibitory compound was proteinaceous in nature, the proteinaceous nature and inactivation by catalase identified them as bacteriocins. These bacteriocins were partially characterized. Bacteriocins produced by these six isolates were active across a wide pH range, relatively insensitive to heat treatment. Stability of the secreted bacteriocins at varying pH values indicated that full activity was retained in all samples at pH 4-6 with a significant reduction in activity at pH 2-3 and pH 7-10.

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Absorption Studies of Tripositive Neodymium Doped Lithium Bismuth Borate Glasses – B. Bhatia and V. Parihar.

 

 

Absorption Studies of Tripositive Neodymium Doped Lithium Bismuth Borate Glasses

B. Bhatia1,* and V. Parihar2

1,*, 2Ceramic Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jai Narain Vyas University Jodhpur 342001(Raj.)India

  

Glasses having composition (60-x) B2O3-10Bi2O3-30Li2O-xNd2O3 with x =1, 1.5 and 2 were prepared by melt quenching technique. The amorphous nature of the prepared glass samples was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The absorption spectra of three Nd3+ lithium bismuth borate (LBB) glasses have been recorded at room temperature. From these spectral data various energy interaction parameters like Slater-Condon parameters Fk (k=2, 4 and 6), Lande’ parameters x4f and Racah parameters Ek (k=2, 4 and 6) have been computed. Nephelauxetic ratio (β’) and bonding parameters (b1/2) have also been computed from these parameters to study the nature of bonding in doped glasses. The intensities of the f-f transitions in the absorption spectra have been analyzed by the application of the Judd-Ofelt theory.

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A combined approach of Swarm Intelligence Protocols for Monitoring Network Congestion – Rashmi Singh and Dr. Sweta Verma.

 

A combined approach of Swarm Intelligence Protocols for Monitoring Network Congestion

Rashmi Singh1,* and Dr. Sweta Verma2

1,*Research Scholar, New Delhi, India

2Department of Information Technology, Galgotia’s College of Engg & Technology

Greater Noida, India

 

This paper introduces a hybrid technique by combining more than one protocols of swarm intelligence to obtain better network traffic management. The proposed routing protocol which is a combination of Wireless Ant Network based Routing Protocol (W_AntNet), named as Secure Load Aware Wireless Ant Network (SLAWAN) and Bee Hive based Routing Algorithm for decreasing route discovery latency in real time communications in high dynamic networks. The proposed algorithm splits the network into two parts; one is a fixed network and the other is a mobile ad hoc network (MANET), then applying the Wireless Ant Network based Routing Algorithm on the mobile part and the Bee Hive based Routing Algorithm on the fixed one. This protocol monitors the congestion status of active routes and reconstructs the path when nodes of the route have their network buffer queue overloaded.

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A Morphology based Approach for Human Skin Detection in Color Image – Lavanya Sharma, D.K. Yadav and Manoj Kumar.

A Morphology based Approach for Human Skin Detection in Color Image

Lavanya Sharma1,*, D.K. Yadav2 and Manoj Kumar3

1,2,3Department of CSE, M.R.C.E. Faridabad, India

 

A reliable skin detection method that is adaptable to different human skin colors and illumination is very essential for human skin detection. Today’s many skin detection methods are available in literature but they are not able to cope with variety of skin colors. Several image processing and computer vision approaches have been developed for human skin detection. In this work we propose a mathematical morphology based YCbCr method which given better performance as compare to other HSV, YCbCr color spaces. This method is simple and efficient. The experimental result shows that the proposed method can achieve satisfactory performance in real time applications.

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Spectroscopic Investigation of Pr3+ Doped Zinc Lithium Bismuth Borate Glasses – Beena Bhatia and Vishal Parihar.

Spectroscopic Investigation of Pr3+ Doped Zinc Lithium Bismuth Borate Glasses

Beena Bhatia1,* and Vishal Parihar2

1,2Ceramics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur-342001(Raj.), India

 

Optical absorption and fluorescence spectra of Pr3+ doped bismuth borate glasses having glass system (60-x)B2O3-10Bi2O3-20Li2O-10ZnO-xPr6O11 where x=1, 1.5 and 2 mol% have been recorded. Judd-Ofelt theory have been applied to compute oscillator strength and intensity parameters Ωλ (λ=2, 4 and 6).  These parameters have been used to calculate the radiative properties of glasses viz., spontaneous emission probability (A), radiative life time (tR), fluorescence branching ratio (βR) and stimulated emission cross section (σp) of various emission lines have been evaluated. The results obtained suggest that these new materials can be considered as an interesting candidate for laser applications.

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Vitamin C Source Food Articles, Cure of Urinary Tract Infection in North India – A.S. Shishodia, Dr. Mukta Sharma and Ajit Joshi.

Vitamin C Source Food Articles, Cure of Urinary Tract Infection in North India

A.S. Shishodia1, Dr.  Mukta Sharma2,* and Ajit Joshi3

1,3Department of Microbiology, Mewar University, Chittorgarh (Raj.), India

2,*Department of Microbiology, S.B.B. Dental College & Research Centre, Ghaziabad, India

 

Different bacterial strains were isolated from hospitalized patients with Urinary Tract Infection and microscopically and biochemically characterized as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Alcaligenes   faecalis. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common urine isolate and Staphylococcus saprophyticus was another common organism. The antimicrobial activity of vitamin C sources like cranberry, amla, lemon, roseberry and mango was determined against a total of forty eight isolated organisms by well plate method and sensitivity of antibiotics were also checked by Kirby-Baur disc diffusion method. On comparative analysis of vitamin C source food articles and antibiotic sensitivity against isolated organisms it was found that action of cranberry, amla, lemon, roseberry and mango have good effect as compare to different antibiotics. Among these sources cranberry was most effective against all urine isolates. Due to the emergence of drug resistant microorganisms, it is a need to search out more effective antimicrobial agents to cure the disease. Our studies suggest that high intake of vitamin C tends to increase the acidity of urine which is not well tolerated by the bacteria responsible for UTI.

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A Mössbauer Spectroscopic study of Ordinary Chondrites – Abhijit Kulshreshtha and Neeraj Bijlani.

A Mössbauer Spectroscopic study of Ordinary Chondrites

Abhijit Kulshreshtha1 and Neeraj Bijlani2,*

1,2,*Department of Physics, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur, India

 

Mössbauer spectroscopic studies of Ordinary chondrite shows that the main iron minerals in chondrites are Fe-Ni (Kamacite/Taenite), Troilite, Olivine and Pyroxene. Presence of these minerals can be characterized as a signatures of ordinary chondrites. Mössbauer absorption areas corresponding to different phases favour its classification as H ordinary chondrites.

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A Comparative Study of Novel Super Disintegrating Agent, Guar gum to existing Super Disintegrating Agent, Sodium Starch Glycolate on Release Rate of Drug from Fast Dissolving Tablet – Dr. Rambabu Sharma, Deepak Choudhary, Anil Bhandari, Rajesh Verma and M.S. Ranawat.

A Comparative Study of Novel Super Disintegrating Agent, Guar gum to existing Super Disintegrating Agent, Sodium Starch Glycolate on Release Rate of Drug from Fast Dissolving Tablet

Dr. Rambabu Sharma1, *, Deepak Choudhary2,  Anil Bhandari3, Rajesh Verma4 and M.S. Ranawat5

1,2,3,4Faculty of pharmaceutical science, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur, India.

5B. N. College of Pharmacy, Udaipur. India.

 

The aim of present study is to exist a novel super disintegrants in fast dissolving tablet. Guar gum is a natural substance and used in many pharmaceutical product and it can also used as a super disintegrating agent in fast dissolving tablet. The result is that it released the 99.21% drug in 15min as compared to Sodium Starch Glycolate (SSG), where only 97.51% drug was released. The onset of time was better for guar gum where, 84.79% of drug was released in 2min from F3 formulation as compared of F6 formulation where only 71.22% drug was released.  The possible mechanism of disintegrating property was good swelling property of guar gum than SSG but when the concentration of guar gum was used above 8%, it created a problem on disintegration of tablet due to formation of gel layer around the tablet. All evaluating parameters were within range and no markedly difference was observed.

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An Overview of LTE Technology and its Applications in Telecommunication Domain – Ritesh Saraswat, Dr. Sarika Jain, Dr. Vijay Kaushik and Charu Jain.

An Overview of LTE Technology and its Applications in Telecommunication Domain

Ritesh Saraswat1,*, Dr. Sarika Jain2, Dr. Vijay Kaushik3 and Charu Jain4

1,*Research Scholar, Department of Electronics, CMJ University, Meghalaya, India

2HOD, Department of Electronics, VIIT, Bulandshahr, UP, India

3Director, Department of Electronics, VIIT, Bulandshahr, UP, India

4Lecturer, Department of Mgmt. & Comp. Sc., R.V. Higher Edu. & Tech. Institute, Dadari, G.B. Nagar, UP, India

 

Various wireless access technologies i.e. both the non-3GPP and 3GPP are beyond the Long Term Evolution (LTE) and connected to the Evolved Packet Core System (EPC), for example Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity). The wireless access technologies predicted that mobile data traffic may increase the high capacity demands. The improved device capabilities and new services indicates that the consumer data-rate and mobile broadband traffic demands are growing at an unprecedented rate. The mobile broadband traffic are increased at high rate and the Ericsson reports specify that world total mobile data traffic in 4G, 3G and 2G networks will have possibilities to grow 10-fold between 2011 and 2016.

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Study of Chemical State of Iron in Giral Lignite Samples using 57Fe Mossbauer Spectroscopy – K.R. Patel, Renu, Beena Bhatia and Sahiram.

Study of Chemical State of Iron in Giral Lignite Samples using 57Fe Mossbauer Spectroscopy

K.R. Patel1, Renu2, Beena Bhatia3,* and Sahiram4

1,2,3,4Mossbauer spectroscopy Laboratory, Department of Physics, J.N.V. University, Jodhpur, India.

 

57Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy and powder XRD has been used to characterize the iron-bearing phase in the lignite samples collected from Giral, Rajasthan. It is found that the samples contain anomalous presence of Jarosite which is generally not found in lignite samples. Simultaneously powder XRD spectra show dominating presence of Ca2SO4 It appears that both sulphate minerals (Jarosite and Gypsum Ca2SO4) should be highly correlated. The significance of anomalous presence of Jarosite in lignite samples is discussed.

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Impact on the Phenological Events of Plants under Stress Conditions of Auto-Exhaust Pollution – Dr. Anita Pawar.

Impact on the Phenological Events of Plants under Stress Conditions of Auto-Exhaust Pollution

Dr. Anita Pawar

Asst. Prof. Department of Botany

N.R.E.C. College, Khurja, U.P., India

Present paper deals with the impact of auto-exhaust pollution on the phenological events of Withania somnifera and Amaranthus viridis growing along the road side. For study purpose three sites were identified i.e Highly Polluted Area (HPA), Medium Polluted Area (MPA) and Fresh Area (FA-Control), in city Ghaziabad which is an important industrial town of western U.P.. Various phenological events like-germination, vegetative growth, flowering and fruiting etc. were recorded. It was found  that different plants respond differently to the stress and life cycle was noticed short under stressed conditions of pollution.

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A New Method Based on the Comparison of the Connection Strings of the Kinematic Chains to detect Isomorphism – Syed Shane Haider Rizvi.

A New Method Based on the Comparison of the Connection Strings of the Kinematic Chains to detect Isomorphism

Syed Shane Haider Rizvi1,*

1,*Assistant Professor, Jamia Millia Islamia (CentralUniversity), New Delhi-110025

 

This paper presents a new method for the detection of isomorphism in kinematic chains which plays an important role in structural synthesis of kinematic chains. The proposed method uses the new invariants called as connection string & connection value. These invariants are based on the degree of links and used as an identifier of a kinematic chain (KC). The proposed method is easy to compute, reliable and capable of detecting isomorphism in all types of KC, i.e. chains of single or multi degree of freedom with simple joints. This study will help the designer to select the best KC and mechanisms to perform the specified task at conceptual stage of design.

Keywords:  Isomorphism, Kinematic chain (KC), Connection string, Connection value, Degree of freedom.

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An Investigation into the Evolution of Wireless Mobile Technologies and their Impact on Communication – Ritesh Saraswat, Dr. Sarika Jain and Dr. Vijay Kaushik.

An Investigation into the Evolution of Wireless Mobile Technologies and their Impact on Communication

Ritesh Saraswat1,*, Dr. Sarika Jain2 and Dr. Vijay Kaushik3

1,* Research Scholar, Department of Electronics, CMJ University, Meghalaya, India

2 HOD, Department of Electronics, VIIT, Bulandshahr, UP, India

3 Director, VIIT, Bulandshahr, UP, India

The data traffic through mobile devices has grown exponentially and as a result internet is transforming itself to be based on mobile networks. Mobile devices which have been conventionally using third and fourth generation technologies have started choosing Wi-Fi as an alternative for coping with the increasing data traffic. However, simultaneous access of these technologies will improve the performance of mobile devices. Wi-Fi offloading is the solution for the future growth of the mobile broadband data traffic in deployed long term evolution [LTE] and Wi-Fi is an alternative access network technology.

Keywords: Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi), long term evolution [LTE].

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Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some New Diindolylmethane – Dr. Meenu Mangal and Nitesh Saini.

Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some New Diindolylmethane

Dr. Meenu  Mangal1,*and Nitesh Saini2

1,2,*Poddar International CollegeMansarovar,Jaipur-302020,  Rajasthan, India

E mail: drmeenumangal@gmail.com

 

Condensation of aldehyde or ketone with approximately substituted indoles in glacial acetic acid gave diindolylmathene. The synthesized compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis and spectral data (IR, PMR and FEB MASS). All the synthesized compounds have been evaluated for anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities.

Keywords: Ketones, Substituted Indoles, Antibacterial and Antifungal activities.

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Mössbauer Spectroscopic Study of Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Corrosion of Mild Steel in 1.0M Sodium Sulphate Solution – Dr. Kashyap Dhoot.

Mössbauer Spectroscopic Study of Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Corrosion of Mild Steel in 1.0M Sodium Sulphate Solution

Dr. Kashyap Dhoot1,*

1,*Department of Physics, JNVU, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India

 

 A systematic study of the ascorbic acid on the corrosion of mild steel in 1.0M solution of Sodium Sulphate (controlsSolution) has been carried out using Mössbauer Spectroscopy. It is observed that the presence of ascorbic acid of strength ≥ 0.1M in corroding media (1.0M solution of sodium sulphate) influences the formation of usual corrosion species like β, γ-FeOOH and Ferrihydrite. It also retards the rate of rust formation.

Keywords:  Ascorbic acid, Mössbauer Spectroscopy,Corrosion species.

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Thermal Management Components and their Significance in Energy Efficient/Green Buildings in India: A Review- Ashok Kumar and D. Buddhi.

Thermal Management Components and their Significance in Energy Efficient/Green Buildings in India: A Review

Ashok Kumar1,* and D Buddhi2

1,*A2Z Maintenance and Engg. Services Ltd, Sector 32, Plot No. B- 38, Gurgaon, India

aksss09@yahoo.co.in

2World Energy Edu. Foundation, Maya Plaza, Garhi Cantt., Dehradun, India dbuddhi@gmail.com

 

A growing world-wide concern for the conservation of energy and depletion of natural resources leads to a renewed interest in those aspects of architecture, which leads to thermal comfort in buildings with minimum consumption of conventional energy and depletion of natural resources. These aspects are termed as energy efficient design strategies. Various strategies for designing green buildings are (i)Building design parameters (iii) Efficient selection of HVAC equipments (iii) lower embodied energy of building material and (iv) Soil & water conservation. In this review various aspects like social, economical, energy, environment and sustainability of buildings with their labeling in terms of Bureau of Energy Efficiency, India has been presented.

Keywords: Thermal Comfort, Green Building, HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning).

 

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M*- Separation Axioms – Dr. M.C. Sharma and Poonam Sharma.

M*- Separation Axioms

Dr. M.C. Sharma1,*and Poonam Sharma2

sharmamc2@gmail.com and poonamsachin83@gmail.com

1,*,2 Department of Mathematics, N.R.E.C. College, Khurja – 203131 (U.P.) India

 

In this paper, we introduced the concepts of new separation axioms called M* separation axioms i. e. M*-T½, M*-Tb,M*-Td – spaces by using M* open sets in topological space and obtained several properties of such spaces.

Keywords: gM*– closed, gM*– open, rgM*– open sets, M*-T½, M*-Tb, M*-Td – spaces.

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Modeling of PCM Wall of a Building for the Management of Thermal Load – Ashok Kumar Saini

Modeling of PCM Wall of a Building for the Management of Thermal Load

Ashok Kumar Saini

A2Z Maintenance and Engineering Services Ltd, Sector 32, Plot No B-38, Gurgaon- 122001, India

Email: aksss09@yahoo.co.in

A theoretical model based on enthalpy formulation and fully implicit finite difference method, has been used for one-dimensional model to predict the time-wise variation of latent heat stored and melt fraction of PCM in the designed model. The objective of this paper is to predict the thermal performance of a latent heat thermal energy storage system roof, a building component which contributes maximum heat load inside the building and comparison of heat load reduction due to addition of PCM wall. Stored heat can easily be utilized for any other application or can be flushed to the ambient.

Keywords: Enthalpy, Latent heat, (PCM) Phase change materials, Heat load.

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Synthesis of Mono and Bi Dentate Schiff’s Bases and their Complexes with M(CO)6 [M= Cr, Mo, W] – Dr. Manoj Kumar Agarwal, Manish Kaushik and Amit Singhal.

Synthesis of Mono and Bi Dentate Schiff’s Bases and their Complexes with M(CO)6 [M= Cr, Mo, W]

Dr. Manoj Kumar Agarwal1, Manish Kaushik2 and Amit Singhal3,*

1Deptt. of Chemistry, Accurate Institute of Management & Technology, Greater Noida, G.B. Nagar, U.P., India

2Deptt. of Chemsitry, Accurate Institute of Management & Technology, Greater Noida, G.B. Nagar, U.P., India

3,*Department of Chemical Sciences, JJT University, Jhunjhunu Rajasthan, India

 

The development of bacterial resistance to available antibiotics and increasing incidence of multi resistant bacterial infections in hospitals and in the community has necessitated the search for new antibacterial agents to treat the bacterial infection. Thiazoles and their derivatives form a part of Vitamin B1 and coenzyme carboxylase. They represent a very interesting class of compounds because of their wide applications as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-degenerative and anti-HIV activities. In the light of the above we have synthesized some new noble Schiff’s Bases and their G-6 metal carbonyl derivatives. Schiff’s bases  viz. N-[(E)-phenylmethylidene](naptho[1,2-d][1,3]thiazol-2-amine (SB1), N-[(E)-(3-methoxyphenyl)methylidene](naptho[1,2-d][1,3]thiazol-2-amine) (SB2) react with G-6 metal hexacarbonyls in benzene to give monosubstituted derivatives  while N-[(E)-phenylmethylidene] (naptho[1,2-d][1,3]thiazol-2-ylimino)methyl]phenol  (SB3), 2-methoxy-6-[(E)-(naptho[1,2-d][1,3]thiazol-2-ylimino)methyl]phenol (SB4) and N-[(E)-furan-2-ylmethylidine] (naptho[1,2-d][1,3]thiazol-2-amine (SB5) react with G-6 metal hexacarbonyls in benzene to give disubstituted derivatives.

Keywords: Schiff bases, Metal carbonyl, Naptho[1,2-d][1,3]thiazol-2-amine.

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Intensify the I/O Performance of OODBS by Collaboration between Opportunism and Prioritization – Dheeraj Chooramani and Dr. D.K. Pandey.

Intensify the I/O Performance of OODBS by Collaboration between Opportunism and Prioritization

Dheeraj Chooramani1,* and Dr. D.K. Pandey2

1,*Research Scholar, Department of Computer Science, JJTU, Rajasthan, India.

2 Director, Dr. Pandey Professional College, Ghaziabad, UP, India

As we all know that clustering has demonstrated to be one of the most effective performance enhancement techniques for object oriented database systems. The bulk of work is done on static clustering, that is re-clustering the object base when the database is off-line. When 24-hour database access is required this type of re-clustering cannot be used. In these cases clustering is required which can recluster the object base while the database is in operation. We believe that most existing on-line clustering algorithms lack three important properties. These include: the use of opportunism to imposes the smallest I/O footprint for re-organization; the re-use of prior research on static clustering algorithms; and the prioritization of re-clustering so that the worst clustered pages are re-clustered first. In this paper we present a opportunistic priority clustering framework in which any existing off-line clustering algorithm can be made on-line and given the desired properties of opportunism and clustering prioritization. Most importantly it allows the created algorithm to have the properties of I/O opportunism and clustering prioritization which are missing in most existing dynamic clustering algorithms. We have used OPCF to make the static clustering algorithms Graph Partitioning and Probability Ranking Principle into dynamic algorithms. We have used the latest version of VOODB 2007 and OCB 1998 in comparison to other researchers.

Keywords: Object-oriented database system, Static clustering, Dynamic clustering algorithms, Prioritization, Opportunism.

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Some Flexible Software Reliability Growth Models using Two-Dimensional Approach – Ompal Singh, Jyotish N.P. Singh, Jyotish Kumar and P.K. Kapur.

Some Flexible Software Reliability Growth Models using Two-Dimensional Approach

Ompal Singh1,*, Jyotish N.P. Singh2, Jyotish Kumar3 and P.K. Kapur4

1,2,3Department of Operational Research, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.

4Amity International Business School, Amity University, Noida, U.P., India.

The concern for software reliability has grown over a period of time especially with the advent of real life systems such as satellite and shuttle control, telephone, internet and banking services. In today’s life the computers are being used to monitor and control safety critical and civilian systems with a great demand for high-quality software products. So reliability is a primary concern for both software developers and software users. The new outlines of competition and collaboration that have arisen in software engineering as a result of the globalization process have an impact on the entire software process. The need is growing to estimate, risk assess, plan and manage the development of these complex software systems to ensure a smooth run of life. Therefore to capture the combined effect of testing time and testing coverage we propose a two dimensional software reliability growth model. We have used cobb-douglas production function to develop the two dimensional model incorporating the effect of testing time and testing coverage on the number of faults removed in the software system. In this paper, we present two software reliability growth models incorporating logistic distribution function and Exponentiated Exponential distribution function respectively. The model developed is validated on real data set.

Keywords: Software reliability growth models (SRGMs), Cobb–Douglas production function, Logistic distribution function, Exponentiated exponential distribution function.

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Performance Studies of Refrigerated Van having PCM for Generating Off Site Refrigeration Effect- Munesh Kumar Sharma and D. Buddhi.

Performance Studies of Refrigerated Van having PCM for Generating Off Site Refrigeration Effect

Munesh Kumar Sharma1,* and D. Buddhi2

1,*Millennium Institute of Technology, Biharigadh, Saharanpur-247001, India

2Shivalik College of Engineering, Shimla Bypass, Dehradun-248197, India

 

A refrigeration system incorporating phase change material (PCM) is proposed to maintain refrigerated van at the desired thermal conditions. The advantage of using PCM to maintain low temperatures is that a conventional refrigeration system does not have to be located on-board the vehicle. In addition, Thermal Energy Storage through Phase Change material has been used for wide applications in the field of air conditioning and refrigeration especially at industrial scale. The specific use of this Thermal Storage has been for Energy Storage during low demand and release of this Energy during peak loads with potential to provide energy savings due to this. The system consumes less energy and produces much lower local greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The phase change material is charged by a refrigeration unit located off the vehicle when stationary. The PCM is discharged and provides cooling when in service. A new PCM with a lower cost than currently available PCMs was developed, suitable for maintaining the refrigerated van at a temperature of 5oC. The PCM has a melting temperature of -15.2oC and a latent heat of 284 kJ/ kg. The use of latent heat storage is especially suited to the storage of energy to prolong the food preservation time of refrigerators fresh food compartment & also improve the cooling cycle by its release at appropriate time. A prototype system was constructed and test results proved that the proposed refrigeration system is feasible for mobile transport.

Keywords: Phase change material (PCM), Thermal energy storage, Greenhouse gas (GHG).

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Process Improvement by Implementation of Lean Techniques – Ch Raviteja*

Process Improvement by

Implementation of Lean

Techniques

Ch Raviteja

Graduate of Mechanical Engineering, BITS Pilani Hyderabad Campus

MIG-1880, BHEL, R.C.Puram, Hyderabad

 

Lean manufacturing techniques are being increasingly used in many industries due to their success in the Japanese automobile industry. There are many techniques one may use to improve the processes but any techniques have to be continuously implemented (Kaizen) in order to obtain substantial results. Even though the literature on Lean techniques is easily available, not many companies have been successful in implementing them. This paper deals with the application of some techniques in a high mix- low volume environment.

Keywords: Lean, Value Stream Mapping, Single piece flow, 5S methodology, Ishikawa diagram etc.

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Determination and Comparative Study of Mineral Elements and Nutritive Value of some Common Fruit Plants – Brijesh Mishra, Ritu Kushwaha and F.K. Pandey*

Determination and Comparative

Study of Mineral Elements and

Nutritive Value of some Common

Fruit Plants

Brijesh Mishra1, Ritu Kushwaha2 and F.K. Pandey3,*

1,2Department of Biotechnology, IMS School of Biosciences, Ghaziabad, U.P. India

3,*Department of Biotechnology, SoS, Noida International University, GBN, UP. India

 

Owing to diverse agro climatic conditions, India is endowed with a wide variety of plants, both wild growing and domesticated, which contribute to the diet of its people. Nutritional contribution and nutritive value of fruits have been extensively studied but, there is practically no information on nutritive value of their bark which may contribute significantly to the nutrient intake of local population. Fruit plants viz; Phyllanthus emblica (Amla), Aegle marmelos (Bael) and Carica papaya (Papita) are very important fruit plants in all over India. These plants have great importance due to their economic value, nutritive value and major source of medicines as they have been found through out human history. The present course of study reveals the elements in bark of the fruits (Amla, Bael & Papaya) as well as the nutritive value of their bark. Macro and microelement contents of bark of three fruit plants (Phyllanthus emblica, Aegle marmelos and Carica papaya) were evaluated by the use of inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) technique. The plant parts showed sufficient mineral elements, most of which have been found to be common among them with good nutritive value and rich in carbohydrate, enough protein and fat content.

Keywords: Phyllanthus emblica, Aegle marmelos and Carica papaya. Mineral elements and Nutritive value.

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Thermal Expansivity and Isothermal Bulk Modulus of Various Classes of Minerals at High Temperatures – Dr. S.P. Singh* and Dr. Jeet Singh

Thermal Expansivity and

Isothermal Bulk Modulus of

Various Classes of Minerals

at High Temperatures

Dr. S.P. Singh1,* and Dr. Jeet Singh2
1,*Assistant Professor, Department of Physics, Govt. Degree College, Sambhal, Bhimnagar.
2Assistant Professor, Department of Physics, Govt. Degree College, Manth, Mathura.

 

In this paper, a new expression for temperature dependence of thermal expansivity and bulk modulus are developed using a simple thermodynamical equation of state. The proposed equation of state is applied to investigate the study thermal expansivity and bulk modulus of various classes of minerals and provides the non-linear models for variation of both thermal expansivity and bulk modulus with temperatures. The results obtained for various earth’s minerals are discussed and compared with experimental results. The computed values of thermal expansivity and bulk modulus have shown a good agreement with available experimental results. It is concluded that a new expression for thermal expansivity and bulk modulus is capable to predict the elastic properties of Earth’s minerals under high temperature conditions.

Keywords: EOS, Thermal expansivity, Bulk modulus, Minerals.

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Virtualization: A Solution for High Availability – Mukesh Chandra Negi* and Dr. D.K. Pandey

Virtualization: A Solution for

 High Availability

Mukesh Chandra Negi1,* and Dr. D.K. Pandey2

1,*Research Scholar, Department of Computer Science, JJTU, Rajasthan

2Director, Dr. Pandey Professional College, Ghaziabad

Virtualization is a technique where a physical server can be divided into multiple virtual servers and each server has its own resources like RAM, CPU, Disk Storage etc. initially the concept of virtualization was initiated specific in the terms of Hardware but later it has got great success in term of Software’s also. There are lots of benefits of hardware as well software virtualization specifically in the field of information technology. Such benefits are like cost saving in terms of infrastructure cost, Labor cost, Hardware cost, Software cost, Space cost, Failover capabilities in case of hardware as well as software failure, reduced the downtime of the production application and most importantly its very helpful in case of any planned or unplanned outages. Since the applications running on production environment has demand the high availability to serve the client requests 24*7, so it’s necessary to minimize the downtime of any planned or unplanned outages as well provide the failover capabilities to minimize the un planned outages. Virtualization is a perfect solution for such an environment where great high availability demanded although still few problems and limitations are there those need to rectify in the future to make it widely accepted by all of the organizations specifically in term of Information Technology. Few of the current issues are like there is no proper way to know the failure of the primary machine because the synch between primary and secondary backup machine can be break due to n number of reasons like due to some network latency or missing of heartbeats due to certain reasons etc. sometimes secondary backup machine did not able to recognize the failure of primary machine due to partial services failure and failover concept didn’t work properly. Apart from that in case of outage of a particular shared resource like shared drive between n numbers of virtual machines impacted the functionality of all of the machines. Still lots of research works have been going on in the same to find out a pure error free virtualization platform.           

Keywords: Availability, Virtualization, Load balancing, Failover, recovery, outages, cluster.

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Enhancement of Nisin Production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MTCC 440 using a Novel Soya Permeate Medium – Dr. Mukta Sharma*

Enhancement of Nisin Production

by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis

MTCC 440 using a Novel Soya

Permeate Medium

Dr. Mukta Sharma

Associate Professor & Head, Department of Microbiology,

Shree Bankey Bihari Dental College & Research Centre

Masuri, Ghaziabad

One of the biggest problems when producing nisin from lactic acid bacteria on an industrial scale is the high cost of the complex peptide sources of the specific commercial media. Improving nisin production through optimization of fermentation parameters would make nisin more cost-effective for various applications. In this work the possibility of using soya permeate as a substitute for commercial peptide sources was studied. The growth and nisin production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MTCC 440 was investigated in fixed volume batch fermentation on soya permeate, and MRS medium. Kinetic parameters and nisin production was higher to those obtained with bactopeptone and commercial media. Soya permeate was also supplemented with growth stimulating amino acids. Nisin biosynthesis is strongly dependent on the presence of a sulphur source, either an inorganic salt (magnesium sulphate or sodium thiosulphate) or the amino acids methionine, or cysteine. The amino acids serine, threonine and cysteine highly stimulate nisin production without affecting the final cell yield, indicating their precursor role during nisin biosynthesis.

Keywords: Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Batch fermentation, Nisin, Soya permeate.

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A Flexible Reliability Growth Model for various Releases of Software under the Influence of Testing Resources – Jagvinder Singh, Ompal Singh*, Deepti Aggrawal, Adarsh Anand and Indarpal Singh

A Flexible Reliability Growth

Model for various Releases of

Software under the Influence of

Testing Resources

Jagvinder Singh1, Ompal Singh2,*, Deepti Aggrawal3, Adarsh Anand4 and Indarpal Singh5

1Maharaja Agrasen College, University of Delhi, India

2,3,4Department of Operational Research, University of Delhi, Delhi, India

5DNPG College, Gulaothi, Bulandshahar, UP, India

 

The life of software is very short in the environment of perfect competition market. Therefore the software developers have to come up with multiple releases in order to survive in the market. But, enhancing the product and coming up with multiple releases puts a constant pressure on even the best organized engineering organizations. The reason being, up-grading a software application is a complex process. Up-grades of software introduce the risk that the new release will contain a bug, causing the program to fail. Therefore, to capture the effect of faults generated in the software with multiple release, we have developed a multi release software reliability model in this paper. The model uniquely take into account the faults of the current release and the remaining faults of just previous release. The multi release software reliability growth model treats the faults removal rate as a function of testing resources consumed. In addition, most of the debugging process in real life is not perfect. Due to complexity and incomplete understanding of the software, the testing team may not be able to remove/correct the fault perfectly on observation/ detection of a failure and the original fault may remain resulting in the phenomenon known as imperfect debugging, or get replaced by another fault causing error generation. The effects of both type of imperfect debugging during testing phase are incorporated in our proposed multi-release model. The model developed is validated on real data set with software which has been released in the market with new features four times

Keywords: Flexible Reliability Growth Models, Various releases, Testing resources.

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New Applications of Soft Computing in Bioinformatics: A Review – Amit Gaurav, Vivek Kumar and Dr. Darshika Nigam*

New Applications of Soft

Computing in Bioinformatics:

A Review

  Amit Gaurav1, Vivek Kumar2 and Dr. Darshika Nigam3,*

1Galgotias College of Engg. & Tech., Greater Noida (UP)

 2Delhi College of Tech. & Mnagment, Palwal, Haryana

3,*Deptt. of Biochemistry, SLS Dr. B.R. Ambedker University, Agra (UP)

 

Bioinformatics is a promising and innovative research field. Soft Computing is playing a crucial role as it provides techniques that are especially well suited to obtain results in an efficient way and with a good level of quality. Soft Computing can also be useful to model the imprecision and uncertainty that the Bioinformatics data and problems have. In this paper, we survey the role of different soft computing paradigms, like Fuzzy Sets (FSs), Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), evolutionary computation, Rough Sets (RSs), and Support Vector Machines (SVMs), biologically inspired algorithm like ant colony system, swarm intelligence and others in bioinformatics systems and problems.  In broader view the present review reveals the major process and functions which are handled by these computing techniques are pattern-recognition and data-mining tasks, clustering, classification, feature selection, and rule generation of Genomic sequence, protein structure, gene expression microarrays, and gene regulatory networks.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Soft computing paradigm, Fuzzy sets, Artificial neural network, Rough sets, Support vector Machines, Ant colony system.

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Protective Role of Turmeric in Manganese-Induced Oxidative Alterations in Rat Brain – Darshika Nigam*, Vibha Rani and Kalpana Singh

Protective Role of Turmeric in

 Manganese-Induced Oxidative

 Alterations in Rat Brain


Darshika Nigam1,*, Vibha Rani2 and Kalpana Singh3

1,*Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University, Agra, India

2Department of Biotehnology, Jay Pee Institute of Technology, Noida, India

3Department of Pathology, S.N. Medical College, Agra, India

 

Turmeric powder obtained from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn., has been traditionally recognized for treatment of several diseases. Overexposure to manganese (Mn) results in a neurological disorder, termed manganism which shares a similar phenotype to Parkinson’s disease. The present study explores the protective effect of turmeric against the toxicity of manganese (Mn) in adult albino male rat brain. Rats were divided into four groups. Group I rats served as control. Group II rats received turmeric (1g/kg body weight/day, orally) for 45 days. Group III rats were received Mn as MnCl2 (8mg/Kg body weight/day), intraperitoneally for 15 days. Group IV rats were orally received turmeric for 45 days. Besides turmeric, group IV rats were also received Mn as MnCl2 (8mg/Kg body weight/day, intraperitoneally) for last 15 days. Levels of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation potential, conjugated dienes, blood-brain barrier permeability, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly increased, however lower levels of superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and membrane fluidity were observed in brain of group III. There was no change found in the activity of catalase in brain of any of the experimental groups. These changes were ameliorated in group IV. The study suggests that turmeric exhibits neuroprotection against free radical-mediated neurotoxicity of Mn.

Keywords: Turmeric, Manganese, Parkinson’s disease, Blood-brain barrier, Neuroprotection.

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Weakly g-Continuous Mappings – Vinshu* and Dr. Bhopal Singh Sharma

Weakly g-Continuous Mappings

Vinshu1,* and Dr. Bhopal Singh Sharma2

1,*Research scholar, Department of Mathematics, N.R.E.C. College, KHURJA, Bulandshahr, UP, India

2Associate Professor, Department of Mathematics, N.R.E.C. College, KHURJA, Bulandshahr, UP, India

 

The present paper comprises some basic properties of weakly g-continuous mappings. Several necessary and sufficient conditions for weakly g-continuous mappings have been studied in section 2. A few results on composition maps are also established in the last.

Keywords: Weakly g-continuous mapping.

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Effect of E-M Field on Hall Coefficient of CdS Thin Film – Vaibhav Jain, Ruchi Agrawal, Dr. A. K. Sharma, Dr. Pawan Kumar and Dr. Abhijit Kulshreshtha

Effect of E-M Field on Hall Coefficient of CdS Thin Film

Vaibhav Jain1,*, Ruchi Agrawal2, Dr. A. K. Sharma3, Dr. Pawan Kumar4 and Dr. Abhijit Kulshreshtha5

1,*Research Scholar, Deptt. of Physics, Faculty of Engg. & Tech., Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan

2Research Scholar, Deptt. of Physics, JJTU, Jhunjunu, Rajasthan, India

3Deptt. of Physics, D.A.V. (P.G.) College, Bulandshahr, India

4Deptt. of Physics, Agarsen Degree College, Sikandarabad, Bulandshahr, India

5Deptt. of Physics, Faculty of Engg. & Tech., Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan

 

Thin film of CdS was prepared by vacuum evoparation method. The variation in Hall coefficient RH of prepared thin film was recorded with electromagnetic field of different frequencies (5-15 MHz at 1MHz steps) and of 10mV, and 15mV amplitudes. The statistical analysis of obtained data was done by R-software which showed that the value of Hall coefficient decreases significantly with increment in frequency of E-M field.

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A BJT Based Soil Moisture Sensor for Irrigation Monitoring – Sanyam Agarwal, Arvind Gautam, Pankaj Singh and Rohit Sharma

A BJT Based Soil Moisture Sensor for Irrigation Monitoring

Sanyam Agarwal1,*, Arvind Gautam2, Pankaj Singh3 and Rohit Sharma3

1,*Bansal Institute of Engineering &Technology, Meerut

2SDCollege of Engineering &Technology Muzaffarnagar,

3SRM University, Ghaziabad

 

A soil moisture sensor is an integral aspect of the various precise irrigation techniques. This paper focuses on a BJT based soil moisture sensor which can be implemented in a large array spreading throughout an irrigated field. Soil conductivity depends on the moisture content around the probes. This is particularly useful for monitoring moisture levels around roots of crops planted in an organized manner. The network architecture allows real time monitoring. A microcontroller is used to scan the array of sensors for output values by operating a switch IC, to calculate the moisture percentage value corresponding to the voltage output of each sensor, to display the percentage moisture value or to operate the valves in drip irrigation or sprinkler systems. The whole architecture is easy to implement and cost-effective. The paper also shows the results of the experiments conducted using this sensor to highlight the effect of the potash and urea fertilizers on the soil properties.

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Development of Vitamin and Dietary Fibre Enriched Carrot Pomace and Wheat Flour based Buns – Kshitij Kumar and Navneet Kumar

Development of Vitamin and Dietary Fibre Enriched Carrot Pomace and Wheat Flour based Buns

Kshitij Kumar1,* and  Navneet Kumar2

1,*Agricultural Engineering Department, Sir Chhotu Ram Institute of Engineering and Technology, CCSU, Meerut

2Agricultural Engineering Department, Rastriya Kisan (P G) College, Shamli, Muzaffarnagar

 

Buns are basically small sized wheat based bread, which are very popular due to its small shape and complete consumption at one time. The buns are generally used as burgers and other fast food items. The buns do not possess a good quantity of vitamins and dietary fiber. Hence, studies were conducted to develop carrot pomace and fine wheat flour based buns. Product development was done by conventional method utilizing carrot pomace in the different proportions of (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10%). All the ingredients were mixed to obtain good consistency dough, later on these were baked in hot air-oven at 177±20C for up to 40 minutes to a golden brown Colour. It was observed that the expansion, water solubility and absorption index decreased with the increase in pomace proportion, whereas bulk density and moisture content increased with the increase in pomace proportion. It was further noted that the expansion, water solubility and absorption index and bulk density were having significant correlation to the pomace proportion (p<0.05).  The buns prepared with carrot pomace at 2.5% levels, showed a very good result in sensory evaluation. The product was recommended for production of carrot buns.

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A Review of Digital Image Steganography – Pradeep Kumar Saraswat and Dr. R. K. Gupta

A Review of Digital Image Steganography

Pradeep Kumar Saraswat1,* and  Dr. R. K. Gupta2

1,*Research Scholar, IT, Singhania University, Rajasthan, India

2Professor, Faculty of Engg. & Tech., HR Group of Institutions, Ghaziabad, U.P., India

 

Steganography is defined as the science or even possibly art of hiding likely critical information within other, seemingly benign information. The point of steganography is to prevent the detection of information leakage, not encrypt data. However, there is nothing stopping a user, malicious or otherwise from first encrypting a secret message and then embedding it inside harmless information. The process only deals with embedding one bit stream (the hidden information) inside of another bit stream. Either bit stream can be of any form. However, steganography is frequently used in conjunction with cryptography. In one method, the plain-text would first be encrypted and then feed to the steganography program. This ensures that if the hidden message is retrieved, the plain-text will still be encrypted. The reverse procedure also works. Two technologies that are closely related to steganography are watermarking and fingerprinting. These technologies are mainly concerned with the protection of intellectual property, thus the algorithms have different requirements than steganography. In watermarking all of the instances of an object are “marked” in the same way. The kind of information hidden in objects when using watermarking is usually a signature to signify origin or ownership for the purpose of copyright protection. With fingerprinting on the other hand, different, unique marks are embedded in distinct copies of the carrier object that are supplied to different customers. This enables the intellectual property owner to identify customers who break their licensing agreement by supplying the property to third parties.

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Limnological Profile of a Sewage Polluted Fresh Water Pond of District Mirzapur – Yashodhara Sharma and Rashmi Jaiswal

Limnological Profile of a Sewage Polluted Fresh Water Pond of District Mirzapur

Yashodhara Sharma1,* and Rashmi Jaiswal1

1,*Department of Zoology. H.N.B. (P.G.) College Naini, Allahabad-211008, India

 

The present article deals with the limnological profile of a man made fresh water pond situated in the village Manguri belonging to Chetganj town area of district Mirzapur. It was constructed in 1958 for the welfare of village people but now it has become a useless water body. As it receives domestic sewage from a residential police line colony established later on the eastside of the pond) without any pretreatment. Limnological investigations of pond water indicate towards high concentration of pH, TSS, hardness, turbidity, alkalinity, BOD, nitrates and phosphates alongwith excessive growth of members of Cyanophycea.

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Drought Analysis of Southern Part of Chhattisgarh Agro-Climatic Plain Zone: A Case Study of Bilaspur District – Vijay Singh and R. K. Isaac

Drought Analysis of Southern Part of Chhattisgarh Agro-Climatic Plain Zone: A Case Study of Bilaspur District

Vijay Singh1,* and R. K. Isaac1

1,*Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering

Allahabad Agricultural Institute-Deemed University, Allahabad

 

Rainfall data of 20 years (1982-2001) based on standard weeks was analyzed for Bilaspur District of Chattisgarh State. The earliest dates of monsoon periods were determined along with their deviations from the mean value. The frequency of dry and wet weeks was calculated by using the concept developed by Pandarinath by considering 20mm rainfall in a week as a demarcation line. Dry and wet spells in pre monsoon, monsoon, and post monsoon periods were estimated by using Markov Chain Model. The monthly maximum rainfall at different probability levels was calculated by using Gumble Probability Method. It was observed that there were 23 dry weeks in pre monsoon and 19 wet spells in monsoon at 0.75 probability density, which was found in close proximity with the observed rainfall for the year 2001. The estimation of deficit periods showed that there was a need of irrigation water especially in the 20th to 23rd weeks and 30th to 33rd weeks after  transplanting of paddy crop. Moisture deficit periods were calculated by comparing the mean monthly evapo-transpiration values with the mean monthly rainfall values of Chhattisgarh.

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Analysis of Solid Waste Management Strategies in Major Cities of Uttar Pradesh in India – Divya Agarwal, Anil Kumar Gupta and Manoj Kumar Agarwal

Analysis of  Solid Waste Management Strategies in Major Cities of  Uttar Pradesh in India

Divya Agarwal1,*, Anil Kumar Gupta2 and Manoj Kumar Agarwal3

1,*Accurate Institute of Management & Technology, Applied Sciences & Humanities Department, Greater Noida

2National Institute of Disaster Management (Division of Policy & Planning), Government of India, IIPA Campus, New Delhi 110 002, India

3DJ College of Engineering & Technology , Modinagar, India

 

India is a developing country with growing economy, indicating high resource consumption and waste generation particularly in urban sector. Municipal solid waste is disposed unscientifically in most of the urban Indian cities, breaking environmental pathways. Present study aims at developing an inventory of solid waste disposal facilities in densely populated major cities of Uttar Pradesh by gathering and analysing relevant data on primary and secondary collection and disposal systems e.g. per capita generation, per capita disposal, collection efficiency, collection & storage facility, transportation facilities, treatment & disposals and the major hindrances in Solid Waste Management (SWM). Solid Waste Management is poor with respect to collection efficiency and segregation of waste.

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Factors Influencing B2C M-Commerce Satisfaction and Trust towards M-Commerce Service Providers – Avdhesh Gupta, Dr. Pankaj Madan and Shalini Gupta

Factors Influencing B2C M-Commerce Satisfaction and Trust towards M-Commerce Service Providers

Avdhesh Gupta1,*, Dr. Pankaj Madan2 and Shalini Gupta3

1,*Assistant Professor, College of Engineering Roorkee

2Associate Professor, Gurukul Kangri Vishwavidayala, Haridwar

3Assistant Professor, Virendra Swarup Group of Institutions, Kanpur

 

The objective of this study is to providing the factors influencing satisfaction of B2C operations and trust towards m-commerce service providers. The sample size consists of 200 respondents. The results analysis shows that customer satisfaction towards the vendor was significantly influenced by ease-of-use, responsiveness, and brand image. The customer trust towards the vendor in m-commerce is affected by responsiveness, brand image and satisfaction towards the vendor in m-commerce. Based on the analysis, m-commerce service providers should focus on those factors, which can provide more satisfaction and trust from the customers. For m-commerce service providers, the results enable them to better develop the trust in m-commerce customers.

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Analysis of Fault Current Limiter (FCL) for Voltage Sag Mitigation through MATLAB/SIMULINK – Vibhor Chauhan, Rishi Pratap Singh and Seema Dhariwal

Analysis of Fault Current Limiter (FCL) for Voltage Sag Mitigation through MATLAB/SIMULINK

Vibhor Chauhan1,*, Rishi Pratap Singh1 and Seema Dhariwal1

1,*Department of Electrical Engineering, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, India

Continues growth of electrical energy demand is resulting in a corresponding increase in the short circuit in power system, which results in voltage sag problems and threat to power quality in the system. Several solutions have been implemented, including the use of Fault Current Limiter (FCL), in order to reduce circuit breakers rated capacity and to limit the electromagnetic stress in associated equipment. This paper presents a study of the impact of fault current limiter in power system performance and hence improving the power quality. In order to evaluate the impact of fault current limiter in power system performance, simulation models of power system performance with ‘FCL’ are used. For simulation model development, MATLAB simulation tool “SIMULINK” software is used. A distribution system fed from single source is used to assess the impact of ‘FCL’ to power system performance.

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Assessment of Distribution Based SRGM with the Effect of Change-Point and Imperfect Debugging Incorporating Irregular Fluctuations – Ompal Singh, Adarsh Anand, Jagvinder Singh and P.K. Kapur

Assessment of Distribution Based SRGM with the Effect of Change-Point and Imperfect Debugging Incorporating Irregular Fluctuations

Ompal Singh1,  Adarsh Anand1,*, Jagvinder Singh1 and  P. K. Kapur2

1,*Department of Operational Research, University of Delhi, Delhi, India

2Amity International Business School, Amity University, Noida, U.P., India

 

Computer software has progressively turned out to be an essential component in modern technologies. Testability is the probability whether tests will detect a fault, given that a fault in the program exists. How efficiently the faults will be uncovered depends upon the testability of the software. Various researchers have proposed qualitative and quantitative techniques to improve and measure the testability of software. Furthermore, it is well known fact that the progress of software testing is influenced by various uncertainty factors like effort expenditure, skill of test personal, testing tool, defect density and irregular state of software fault-report phenomena on the bug tracking system. Hence, there is an irregular fluctuation in fault detection/removal rate during testing phase. In this paper, distribution based software reliability growth models have been developed by applying Itô type Stochastic Differential Equations in order to incorporate (i) the irregular fluctuation in the fault detection process due to various uncertainty factor during testing phase; (ii) two types of imperfect debugging and (iii) change-point concept. The proposed stochastic differential equation based models have been validated using real data sets. Various comparison criteria results for goodness of fit have also been presented in the paper.

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Thermochromic Studies of MEH-PPV – Bhuvneshwar Prasad Gaur, Dr. A. K. Sharma, Vaibhav Jain and Dr. Anil Govindan

Thermochromic Studies of MEH-PPV

Bhuvneshwar Prasad Gaur1,*,  Dr. A. K. Sharma1, Vaibhav Jain2 and Dr. Anil Govindan3

1,*Research Scholar Deptt. of Physics, D.A.V. (P.G.) College, Bulandshahr, India

1Head, Deptt. of Physics, D.A.V. (P.G.) College, Bulandshahr, India

2Assosiate prof. Deptt. of Physics, D.N. (P.G.) College, Gulaothi, Bulandshahr

3Associate prof. M.M.H. (P.G.) College, Ghaziabad

 

In this work we studied the optical properties of Poly [2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) using polymeric blends with polystyrene. The photoluminescence spectrum of (MEH-PPV) present three characteristic peaks correlating to aggregate electronic transition at 608, 674 and 742 nm at 10° K. An addition of Polystyrene in MEH-PPV films induces a red shift in the absorption spectrum and the photoluminescence spectrum presents a new peak at high energy centred at about 572 nm at 10° K. It is attributed to intra band transition between localized intraband states.

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On the Development of Software Reliability Growth Model Based on Features Enhancement – Jagvinder Singh, Ompal Singh, Deepti Aggrawal and Indarpal Singh

On the Development of Software Reliability Growth Model Based on Features Enhancement

Jagvinder Singh1, Ompal Singh1, Deepti Aggrawal1 and Indarpal Singh2,*

1Department of Operational Research, University of Delhi, India

2,*D.N.(P.G.) College, Gulaothi, Bulandshahar, UP, India

 

The software industry can be considered as the typical high technology industry where rate of innovation and knowledge creation plays a pivotal role for continued firm growth. In the last few decades it has been observed that the world of software development management has evolved rapidly due to the intensified market competition. In particular the use of feature-addition model of software products in the industry is fast becoming the commonplace. The up-gradation model can be characterized by increasing the number of features in the software that will give the firm competitive edge in the market. The up-gradation of the system is done by extending it through add-ons, interfacing with other applications etc. Continuous up-gradation of software’s also brings complexity in the systems once it failed to work properly. In recent years, there has been a growing interest to predict the link between the rates of failure and the reliability of software. Many software reliability growth models (SRGMs) have been proposed over past three decades that estimate the reliability of a software system as it undergoes changes through the removal of failure causing faults. But unfortunately most of the models didn’t consider anything about the increase in failure rate once an up-gradation is made on the software. The objective of this paper is to propose the software reliability growth model that incorporates the effect of enhancement of features on software during testing and debugging process. Results have been supplemented with numerical examples.

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Indexing of Building Materials with Embodied, Operational Energy and Environmental Sustainability with Reference to Green Buildings – Ashok Kumar, D. Buddhi and D. S. Chauhan

Indexing of Building Materials with Embodied, Operational Energy and Environmental Sustainability with Reference to Green Buildings

         Ashok Kumar1, D. Buddhi2,* and D. S. Chauhan3

1A2Z Maintenance and Engineering Services Ltd, Sector 32, Plot No. 44, Gurgaon- 122001, India

2,*Shivalik College of Engineering, Shimla Bypass Dehradun -248197, India

3Uttarakhand Technical University, Suddhowala, Dehradun -248007, India

 

There is good number of options to design energy efficient/green buildings. One of the objectives of green building is to conserve the natural resources and substantial energy is consumed in the operation of air conditioning system. In this paper total usage of energy (embodied and operational energy) has been calculated for fire clay bricks and ash blocks building material. Energy and environment indices were calculated and it was found that use of ash block as replacement of fire clay bricks can reduce significantly the heat load, size of air conditioning system and hence contributes towards saving of natural resources and environment.

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Cost Benefit Analysis of Three Unit Redundant System Model with Correlated Failures and Repairs – Dr. V. K. Sharma and Surendra Prabhat Gupta

Cost Benefit Analysis of Three Unit Redundant System Model with Correlated Failures and Repairs

Dr. V. K. Sharma1 and Surendra Prabhat Gupta1,*

1Reader and Head, Department of Mathematics, D.N.(P.G.) College, Gulaothi, Bulandshahr

1,*Research Scholar, Department of Mathematics, D.N.(P.G.) College, Gulaothi, Bulandshahr

 

In this paper, an attempt is made to study an analysis of three unit redundant system model with correlated failures and repair times. In this work analysis of reliability and mean time to system failure, availability analysis, busy period analysis and profit function analysis are studied. Also graphical study of the system model is shown. The result indicated that higher correlation between the failure and repair times provides the better system performance.

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Phytoremediation of Flyash by Assessing Growth Responses of the Local Tree Species – Divya Agarwal, Manoj K. Agarwal, Mohammad Yunus and S.K. Gautam

Phytoremediation of Flyash by Assessing Growth Responses of the Local Tree Species

Divya Agarwal1*, Manoj K. Agarwal2, Mohammad Yunus 3 and S.K. Gautam4

1Assosiate Prof., Dept. of Applied Sciences & Humanities, Accurate Institute of Management & Technology, Greater Noida, India.

bProfessor, D.J. College of Engineering & Technology, Modinagar, India

3School for Environmental Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar (Central) University, Lucknow, India.

4Research Scholar, Department of Chemistry, Institute of Engineering & Management, Mathura, U.P., India.

 

Flyash is the coal combustion residue generated in bulk quantities from thermal power generation in India. Disposal of flyash is of serious environmental concern due to its hazardous properties, impact on vegetation and crops grown,and long-term risks to ecosystems and human life. Physico-chemical properties of flyash from the Feroz Gandhi Unchahar Thermal Power Plant (FGUTPP), Raebareilly in Uttar Pradesh (India) were compared with that of Garden Soil (GS). Plants of Terminalia arjuna, Bauhinia variegata and Morus alba were grown on flyash substrate to understand the potential of phytoremediation in reclaiming the flyash dumpsites. The plant growth was analysed in different combinations of flyash and garden soil: 100% flyash (T1), 75% flyash and 25% GS (T2), 50% flyash and 50% GS (T3), 25% flyash and 75% GS (T4). Different morphological viz. Shoot & root growth, and physiological parameters of plant growth viz. Chlorophyll, Protein and Nitrate Reductase were analysed. Results of the study are directly useful in developing phytoremediation protocols for flyash disposal sites of application of flyash as a blend to the plantation areas.

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57Fe Mössbauer Spectroscopic Study of Cretaceous Sediments of Jaisalmer Petroliferous Basin of Rajasthan, India – K.R. Patel, Sahi Ram and Renu

57Fe Mössbauer Spectroscopic Study of Cretaceous Sediments of Jaisalmer Petroliferous

Basin of Rajasthan, India

K.R. Patel1, Sahi Ram2,* and Renu3

1,2Professor, Department of Physics, Jai Narain Vyas University Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India

3Research Scholar, Department of Physics, Jai Narain Vyas University Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India

57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy study was carried out on sedimentary samples collected from different depth interval in Cretaceous sedimentary sequence.  These samples were collected from different test wells drilled in Jaisalmer petroliferous basin and also for each well the samples were collected from different depths. The chemical state of iron in Cretaceous sediments has been studied. Iron is found present in pyrite, carbonates and clays. A possible correlation in relative abundance of iron-bearing minerals and the environment of deposition is discussed.

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Study of Ferrous to Ferric Ratio in Source Rock Sediments of Jaisalmer Basin of Rajasthan, India, Using Mössbauer Spectroscopy – K.R. Patel, Sahi Ram and Renu

Study of Ferrous to Ferric Ratio in Source Rock Sediments of Jaisalmer Basin of Rajasthan, India, Using Mössbauer Spectroscopy

K.R. Patel1, Sahi Ram2,* and Renu3

1,2Professor, Department of Physics, Jai Narain Vyas University Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India

3Research Scholar, Department of Physics, Jai Narain Vyas University Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India

Number of sedimentary samples obtained from different depth were studied using 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy to identify iron phases in samples. These samples were collected from different test wells drilled in Jaisalmer petroliferous basin and also for each well the samples were collected from different depths. Aim of this study was to identify different iron phases and also to obtain information about crucial Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio in the organic rich sediments (source rocks). The Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio seems to be correlated with the environment of deposition in the sediments. The smaller value of Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio indicate poor reducing condition in the sediments which is not favourable for generation of oil/gas in a basin.

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Performance Analysis for a Network having Standby Redundant Unit with Waiting in Repair – Jitendra Singh and Rabins Porwal

Performance Analysis for a Network having Standby Redundant Unit with Waiting in Repair

Jitendra Singh1,* and Rabins Porwal2

1,*Research Scholar, NIMS University, Rajasthan, India

2Associate Professor, Department of Information Technology,

Institute of Technology & Science (ITS), Mohan Nagar, Ghaziabad (UP) – 201 007,INDIA

In this paper, the authors deal with a complex network having n-identical units in series and two identical standby units for evaluation of its ability measures. The authors have been used supplementary variables technique to formulate the mathematical equations for various flow-states of fig-1(b). These mathematical equations have been solved by the application of Laplace transform. The Laplace transforms of various flow-states probabilities have obtained. We have calculated the expressions for reliability function, availability function and mean time to failure (M.T.T.F.). Analysis of time-independent state probabilities and a particular case, when all repairs follow exponential time distribution, have also given to improve the practical utility of the model.

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Performance Study of Single Compressor-Multi Evaporator Type Refrigeration Plant – E.B. Saju and Dr. Deepankar Sharma

Performance Study of Single Compressor-Multi Evaporator Type Refrigeration Plant

E.B. Saju1,* and Dr. Deepankar Sharma2

1,*Research Scholar, Singhania University, Rajasthan, India

2Professor, Dept. of Mathematics, D.J. College of Engg. & Tech., Modinagar, UP

 

The author, in this paper, has considered a refrigeration plant for analysis of its some important performance measures. This refrigeration plant has a single compressor with multi-evaporators. Boolean function technique has been used to formulate and solve the mathematical model. Reliability of the system has been obtained in two cases: (i) when failure rates follow exponential time distribution, and (ii) when failure rates follow Weibull time distribution. Mean time to failure of the system has also been given at the end. One numerical example together with the graphical illustration has been appended at the end to highlight the important results of the study.

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Analysis of Working Capabilities for Solar PV System Incorporating Environmental Effects – E.B. Saju and Dr. Deepankar Sharma

Analysis of Working Capabilities for Solar PV System Incorporating Environmental Effects

E.B. Saju1,* and Dr. Deepankar Sharma2

1,*Research Scholar, Singhania University, Rajasthan, India

2Professor, Dept. of Mathematics, D.J. College of Engg. & Tech., Modinagar, UP

 

In this paper, the author has considered a solar photovoltaic (PV) system to measure its availability as well as profit. Since, the system under consideration is of Non-Markovian nature, the supplementary variables technique has used to formulate a mathematical model. All the failures follow exponential time distribution whereas all repairs follow general time distribution. Pre-emptive repeat policy has been adopted for repair purpose. Availability and the profit function for the solar system have been computed. Long–run flow-state probabilities and a particular case, when repairs follow general time distribution, have also been obtained to fulfill the approach to better study of the system. The analysis of results has been drawn through a graphical illustration followed by a numerical computation.

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Reliability Forecast for UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) by Employing Boolean Truth Table Method – Pankaj Singh, Shamimul Qamar and K. P. Yadav

Reliability Forecast for UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) by Employing Boolean Truth Table Method

Pankaj Singh1,*, Shamimul Qamar2 and K. P. Yadav3

1,*Research Scholar, NIMS University, Rajasthan, India

2Professor, Institute of Science & Technology Klawad, Yamuna Nagar, Haryana, India

3Professor, Saraswati Institute of Engineering and Technology, Ghaziabad (U.P.)

This paper investigates the application of the Boolean Truth Table modeling method in estimating the reliability parameters such as the system’s failure rate and Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF), for the uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) systems. The term “uninterruptible” in the UPS implies that the system never fails. However, like any electrical system, failure will occur at some point in time. The reliability of the system is a function of the component selection, the environment of the UPS and the proper operation and maintenance of the UPS. The reliability estimation of the UPS enables the system designers, manufacturers and lastly the end-user to ensure that the UPS will be able to support the critical loads for a specified time during unforeseen circumstances. This paper proposed the Boolean Truth Table method in predicting the failure rates, and mean time between failures (MTBF), of the three types of UPS configurations.

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Opportunity of Energy Saving: A Case Study of Engineering College Workshop – Shailendra Kasera, Ashish Nayyar and Ravi Kumar Goyal

Opportunity of Energy Saving: A Case Study of Engineering College Workshop

Shailendra Kasera1,*, Ashish Nayyar2 and Ravi Kumar Goyal3

1,*Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Poornima College of Engineering, Jaipur

2Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, SKIT Jaipur

3Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, JIT Jaipur

 

Today energy is a prime focus due to rapid growth and development of technology. Energy audit is going to play a vital role in order to save energy and make the process efficient. Energy efficiency is extremely important to all the organization. It should not be limited industry; creating awareness in all users of energy is an urgent task. Although industry is a major user of energy we can not overlook the energy consumption in other sector. This paper includes the case study of engineering college’s workshop. It is found that both energy and time can be saved using suitable method & tips and earliest opportunity to create awareness of energy conservation among the students.

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Reliability Measurement of a Four Cylinder Diesel Engine By Employing Algebra of Logics – Trilok Nath and Dr. Moonis Masood

Reliability Measurement of a Four Cylinder Diesel Engine By Employing Algebra of Logics

Trilok Nath1,* and Dr. Moonis Masood2

1,*Research Scholar, Singhania University, Rajasthan, India

2Dept. of Mathematics, Yanbu University College, Kingdom of Saudia Arabia

 

In this paper, the authors have evaluated reliability of four cylinder diesel engine by employing the Algebra of logics which is easier in comparison of old techniques. Here, a multi-component fuel system in diesel engine, comprised of four subsystems in series, has considered. The authors, in this model, have considered a parallel redundant fuel injective device to improve the system’s performance. The whole system can fail due to failure of atleast one component of all the routes of flow. Boolean function technique has used to formulate and solve the mathematical model. Reliability and M.T.T.F. of the considered diesel engine have been obtained to connect the model with physical situations. A numerical example and its graphical representation have been appended at last to highlight important results.

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Some Exact Solutions for Rotating Flows of a Generalized Second Grade Fluid in Cylindrical Domains – Rakhi Sharma, A. K. Bhargava, Narottam Kumar and A. B. Chandramouli

Some Exact Solutions for Rotating Flows of a Generalized Second Grade Fluid in Cylindrical Domains

Rakhi Sharma1, A. K. Bhargava­2, Narottam Kumar3 and A. B. Chandramouli4

1Research Scholar, C.C.S. University, Meerut

 2Associate Professor, Department of Mathematics, M.M.H. College, Ghaziabad (UP), India

3,4Associate Professor, Department of Mathematics, Meerut College, Meerut (UP), India

1E-mail:rakhi_shrma83@yahoo.com, 2E-mail: dr.bhargavaak@gmail.com

In this paper, we have studied the rotational flow of a generalized second grade fluid between two infinite coaxial circular cylinders. The velocity field and the shear stress obtained by means of Laplace and Hankel transforms are presented under series form in terms of generalized functions. At time t = 0, the fluid and cylinders are at rest. At t = 0+, both cylinders suddenly begin to rotate, about their common axis, with a constant angular acceleration. The obtained solutions can be specialized to give the similar solutions for ordinary second grade and Newtonian fluids performing the same motion.

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Surfactants as Corrosion Inhibitors for Stainless Steel in HCl Solution – Diwan Singh Rajan and Dr. Shiv Darshan Malik

Surfactants as Corrosion Inhibitors for Stainless Steel in HCl Solution

Diwan Singh Rajan1,* and Dr. Shiv Darshan Malik2

1,*Research Scholar, Department of Chemistry, JJT University, Jhunjhunu (Rajasthan) India

2Research Guide , Department of Chemistry, JJT University, Jhunjhunu (Rajasthan) India

 

The role of some surfactants in the corrosion of Stainless steel in 1.0 M HCl has been studied using weight loss and galvanostatic polarization techniques. Results showed that the inhibition occurs through adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the metal surface. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing inhibitor concentration and decreased with increasing temperature which is due to the fact, that the rate of corrosion of Stainless steel is higher than the rate of adsorption The inhibiting action of these compounds are considerably enhanced by the addition of KI, due to the increase of the surface coverage and therefore indicate the joint adsorption of these compounds and iodide ions. Thermodynamic parameters for adsorption and activation processes were determined. Galvanostatic polarization data indicated that these compounds act as mixed-type inhibitors. Results obtained from the two techniques are in good agreement.

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Intensify the I/O Performance of OODBS by Collaboration between Clustering and Buffer Replacement – Dheeraj Chooramani and Dr. D.K. Pandey

Intensify the I/O Performance of OODBS by Collaboration between Clustering and Buffer Replacement

Dheeraj Chooramani1,* and Dr. D.K. Pandey2

1,*Research Scholar, Department of Computer Science, JJTU Rajasthan

2 Director, Dr. Pandey Professional College Ghaziabad

 

There are different techniques for improving I/O performance of Object oriented database Management Systems (OODBMS). Over 15 years of research into OODBMS design, performance remains as one of the major problems. I/O reduction has proven to be one of the most effective ways enhancing performance. The two main techniques of improving I/O performance of Object Oriented Database Management Systems (OODBMS) are clustering and buffer replacement. Clustering is the placement of objects accessed near to each other in time into the same page. Buffer replacement involves the selection of a page to be evicted, when the buffer is full. The page evicted ideally should be the page needed least in the future. These two techniques both influence the likelihood of a requested object being memory resident. We believe an effective way of reducing disk I/O is to take advantage of the synergy that exists between clustering, and buffer replacement. Hence, we design a framework, whereby clustering algorithms incorporating buffer replacement cache behaviour can be conveniently employed for enhancing the I/O performance of OODBMS. We call this new type of clustering algorithm, Cache Conversant Clustering (C3). In this paper, we present the C3 framework, and a C3 algorithm that we have developed, namely C3-GGP Greedy Graph Partioning. We have tested C3-GGP against three well known clustering algorithms. The results show that C3-GGP out performs them by up to 42% when using popular buffer replacement algorithms such as LRU,FCFS and CLOCK. C3-GGP offers the same performance as the best existing clustering algorithm when the buffer size compared to the database size is very small.

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Influence of Pollutant Particles and Electric Field in Particle Nucleation and Condensation – Shivani Avasthi and P.P. Pathak

Influence of Pollutant Particles and Electric Field in Particle Nucleation and Condensation

Shivani Avasthi1,* and P.P. Pathak2

1,*Research  Scholar, Department of Physics, GKV Haridwar

2Professor & Head, Department of Physics, GKV Haridwar

Theory of drop growth in presence of external electric field and pollutant particles has been applied to water vapour condensation. In presence of electric field, Helmholtz free energy of formation of water molecule about a critical nucleus is found to be much less than that in absence of the electric field. We see that for vapour just saturated with respect to water, the energy of the nucleus formation rapidly increases with size as r2wc. The observations suggests that nucleation rate is extremely sensitive to supersaturation ratio, since the term in the exponent varies as S-2v,w. Since in presence of ions and electric field a small value of electric field is comparable to very high supersaturation ratio to get a nucleus of given size under similar conditions of temperature.

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The RF Stimulated DC & Magneto Conduction Processes In Geo-Rock Crystals Granitoids – Pawan Kumar, M. Mittal , R.Swarup and Vaibhav Jain

The RF Stimulated DC & Magneto Conduction Processes In Geo-Rock Crystals Granitoids

Pawan Kumar*, M. Mittal# , R.Swarup# and Vaibhav Jain**

*Deptt. of Physics, AS college Sikandrabad, 203201 (U.P.)

#Deptt. of Physics, DS College Aligarh – 203001 (U.P.)

**Deptt. of Physics, DN college, Gulaothi -245408 (U.P.)

 

The gold bearing mineral from Bundelkhand region neighbouring district Lalitpur develops good dc as well as magneto-conductivity under radio frequency               excitation. The granitoid crystals G-4 & G-6 well get in four probe Hall geometry to record the ohmic as well as magneto potentials under radio frequency (2-5.2 MHz) excitation and magnetic field 4, 6 KGauss has been studied and their electrical carrier concentrations ‘n’ with 5 MHz and magnetic field, H=14 KGauss had been computed. The MRF excitation in Geo-Rock crystals seems to impose semiconductor synthesis, since electrical carrier concentration ‘n’ comes out to be of the order of 1014 per cc.

Keywords:  Granitoid crystals, Four probe Hall geometry, MRF excitation.

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Dielectric And Piezoelectric Studies Of PLZT Prepared By A Novel Method – Hari Mohan Singh, A.K. Sharma and Anil Govindan

 

Dielectric And Piezoelectric Studies Of PLZT Prepared By A Novel Method

Hari Mohan Singh*, A.K. Sharma* and  Anil Govindan#

*DAV (P.G.) College Bulandshahar, Uttar Pradesh,

 #MMH College Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh

The dielectric and piezoelectric studies were carried on La doped Lead Zirconate Titanate PZT (PLZT) ceramic prepared by the method of homogenous precipitation. The material showed better dielectric constants and piezocoefficients compared to the solid state sintering method. The important point is the fine particle size and hence sintering at lower temperature. The dielectric behavior is typical of polar dielectrics with a perovskite structure. The PLZT samples with 8 % La exhibits the maximum figure of merit needed for under water sonar applications.

Keywords: Zirconate Titanate, perovskite structure.

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Early Childhood Caries : A Dental Form Of Health Care Neglect – Manish Goel, G. Venkanna Babu and Manish Sharma

Early Childhood Caries : A Dental Form Of

Health Care Neglect

 Manish Goel*, G. Venkanna Babu** and Manish Sharma#

*Professor, Department of pedodontics and preventive dentistry,

Maitri College of dentistry and research centre, Durg, (C.G.)

**Senior Lecturer, Department of pedodontics and preventive dentistry,

Maitri College of dentistry and research centre, Durg, (C.G.)

#Professor, Department of prosthodontics,

 Sardar Patel institute of dental sciences, Lucknow (U.P)

 

A child is defined as a young human being below the age of full physical development. A child is dependent on his parents or caretakers for the entire physical and mental wellbeing. Any aberration in the parent’s attitudes towards the child results in abuse and neglect of the child. Dental neglect can be indicative of a wider welfare picture of child neglect and abuse and is the most prevalent form of health care neglect especially in India. Failure to seek or obtain proper dental care may result from factors such as family isolation, lack of finance, parental ignorance, or lack of perceived value of oral health.  Early childhood caries, a form of dental caries, can occur any time after teeth eruption and may occur in infant or children with frequent and prolonged exposure to liquids rich in sugar especially at night. Neglecting early childhood caries can lead to pain, infection, loss of tooth  and  function which can adversely affect activities necessary for normal growth and development of an infant or a child. At present , dental neglect is a field especially related to early childhood caries that has received little direct attention. Collaborative working both between dental and other child caring disciplines is necessary to deal with this problem. Pediatricians and other child health care  professionals can have a major impact on prevention of early childhood caries  by early intervention.

Keywords: Dental neglect, early childhood caries, dental caries, child neglect.

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Bluetooth Specification In Wireless Environment – Alok Goel, Dilip Kumar and Shomil Bansal

Bluetooth Specification In Wireless Environment

Alok Goel*, Dilip Kumar* and Shomil Bansal*

* MIT, Bulandshahr, U.P., India

 

 

‘Bluetooth’ is a technique of Wireless Personal area network (WPAN) specially designed to support portable, mobile computing devices and a variety of consumer electronic equipment. The Bluetooth operates in the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio band. Bluetooth radio characteristics include low power, short range and medium transmission speed. Bluetooth chips are already available and early applications include cordless connections from mobile phones to laptop computers and wireless headsets. Since May 1998 the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) has steered the development of the technology through the development of an open industry specification, including both protocols and application scenarios, and a qualification program designed to assure end-user value for Bluetooth products. This paper introduces the Bluetooth wireless technology and its applications and provides a concise description of its air interface, architecture, protocol stack and security.

Keywords: Pico net, Scatternet, Ad hoc networking, Security.

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Generalized Theorem on Multivariable H-function Transform – Harendra Singh and O.P. Chaudhary

Generalized Theorem on Multivariable H-function Transform

Harendra Singh* and O.P. Chaudhary**

 *Dept. of Mathematics, M.M.H. College, Ghaziabad

**Dept. of Mathematics, Sunder Deep Engineering College, Ghaziabad

In this research paper, we obtain an interesting theorem involving multivariable H-function transform. This theorem is quite general in nature and capable of giving a number of new, interesting and useful results. The results obtained by Chaurasia  and Gupta are special cases of main finding.

Keywords: H-function transform.

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Algal Flora Of Saline Habitats, Kaprla – Bhoj Raj Odhwani

Algal Flora Of Saline Habitats, Kaprla

Bhoj Raj Odhwani

Department of Botany, J.N.V. Univesity, Jodhpur

 

Blue-green algal forms are being enumerated, collected from saline habitat of Kapria village-Rajasthan.

Keywords: algal forms, saline habitat.

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Pollution Status of a hypertrophic fresh water pond of district Mirzapur – Yashodhara Sharma and Rashmi Jaiswal

Pollution Status of a hypertrophic fresh water pond of

district Mirzapur

Yashodhara Sharma* and Rashmi Jaiswal

*Associate Prof., Deptt. of  Zology, HNB Govt. P.G. College, Nani, Allahabad

 

Fresh water Pond selected for present study is situated in the village Manguri which belongs to Chetganj town area of district Mirzapur. It can be referred as hypertrophic pond as it receives various types of waste from surroundings, such as agricultural run off (containing non-biodegradable pesticide and fertilizers) household or domestic waste, soap and detergents and organic waste (cow dung) load along with temple garbage. This pond has been studied for pollution with special emphasis on physico-chemical characteristics. The level of pollution was found to reach the maximum during summers. The pond water contains high level of pH, Alkalinity, BOD & COD. Total suspended solids, Dissolved solids, Nitrates, Phosphates & heavy metal Chromium also exceeds the permissible limit.

Key words: Hypertrophic, Non-Biodegradable.

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Impact Of Security In 3G (3rd Generation) M-Commerce Applications For B2B & B2C Operations – Avdhesh Gupta and Dr Pankaj Madan s

Impact Of Security In 3G (3rd Generation) M-Commerce Applications For B2B & B2C Operations

Avdhesh Gupta* and  Dr Pankaj Madan#

*Research Scholor, GKV Haridwar

#Associate Professor, GKV Haridwar

Security challenges, security risks, and security implementations within 3-G M-Commerce is the main issues in this paper. Here, the attention will be paid to see the impact of security of 3-G M-Commerce applications on B2B and B2C operations. Further, by describing the current state of security within 3-G M-Commerce, the paper will show the pitfalls that need to be corrected. It is further envisaged to propose an ideal 3-G M-Commerce system that will overcome these pitfalls and provide optimal security and better quality without degrading the new technology to the point of uselessness. The work is aimed at addressing the issues related to the security of B2B & B2C operations in 3-G enabled M-Commerce so that we will have a positive effect on India’s economic and social development.

Keywords: UMTS, M-commerce, B2B, B2C.

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Fluoride Distribution In Ground Water Of Godwar Region In Pali District – Dr. Sangeeta Parihar

Fluoride Distribution In Ground Water Of Godwar Region In Pali District

Dr. Sangeeta Parihar

Assistant Professor,Department of chemistry,

Jodhpur Engineering College and Research Centre

Jodhpur National University,, Narnadi, Jodhpur

 

Physico-chemical analysis of ground water of the Godwar region, was performed to have a clear picture of water quality of the area so that the remedial measures could be work out for high fluoride concentration, which may cause osteoporosis and fluorosis. Fluoride concentration of groundwater samples from twenty stations of Godwar region (Bali and Desuri Tehsils) of Pali district of Rajasthan was determined. In the region the maximum fluoride concentration is recorded 4.8 mg/l in the ground water of Dungrasani Bali.

 

Keywords: fluoride, ground water, fluorosis.

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Development of carrot pomace and wheat Flour based cookies – Navneet Kumar and Kshitij Kumar

Development of carrot pomace and wheat Flour based cookies

Navneet Kumar* and Kshitij Kumar**

* Agricultural Engineering Department,

Rastriya Kisan (Post Graduate) College, Shamli, Muzaffarnagar

**Sir Chhotu Ram Institute of Engineering and Technology, CCSU, Meerut

 

Carrot is the excellent source of â carotene and other vitamins. The carrot is utilized as raw, cooked vegetable, sweet meats or as juice and beverages. Carrot pomace is the by-product of carrot juice extraction process. The carrot pomace was dried in hot air oven at 65°C and then grinded to pass through 2 mm sieve. Dried carrot pomace was added in different proportions (0 –9%) to fine wheat flour, shortening, sugar and water. The formulation was baked at 175 °C for 12 min. in the gas oven with air circulation. The moisture content of cookies was measured using hot air oven method. The hardness was measured using a texture analyzer (TA-XT2) with the cutting probe in compression mode. The colour of both the sides of cookies was measured using a Hunter’s lab color analyzer. The sensory characteristics for colour, taste, aroma and texture were analyzed using Hedonic rating test by ten panelists. It was observed that moisture content varied from 4.03 to 4.79% with an average moisture content of 4.41%. The average L*, a*, b* values ranged from 51.535 to 61.206, 11.205 to 15.595, 31.65 to 35.27 with average values of 55.3275, 13.84625 and 34.18375 respectively. Maximum change was observed in L* value followed by a* and b* with respect to control sample. The hardness was ranged from 41.047 to 116.1N with an average value of 81.499N. It was further observed that moisture content, hardness and L*, a* values increased with the increase in proportion of carrot pomace in cookies, whereas no pattern of change was observed in b* value with change in proportion of carrot pomace.  Sensory score of all the cookies ranged from fair to very good; whereas the cookies with 6% dried carrot pomace proportion got the highest score. The study indicated that the carrot pomace could be incorporated into ready-to-eat bakery cookies up to the level of 6% as a source of vitamins and dietary fiber.

Keywords: Carrot pomace, Wheat flour, Texture, Colour, Cookies, Sensory.

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Effect Of E-M Field On Hall Coefficient Of ZnTe Thin Film – Vaibhav Jain, Ruchi Agrawal, Abhijit Kulshrestha and A. K. Sharma

Effect Of E-M Field On Hall Coefficient Of ZnTe Thin Film

         

Vaibhav Jain*, Ruchi Agrawal#, Abhijit Kulshrestha* and  A. K. Sharma#

*Deptt. of Physics, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, 324001

#Deptt. of Physics, D.A.V.(P.G.) College, Bulandshahr, UP, 203001

 

Thin film of ZnTe was prepared by vacuum evoparation method. The variation in Hall coefficient RH of prepared thin film was recorded with electromagnetic field of different frequencies (5-15 MHz with 1MHz steps) with 10mV and 15mV amplitudes. The statistical analysis of obtained data was done by R-software which showed that the value of Hall coefficient decreases significantly with increment in frequency of E-M field.

Keywords: Vacuum evaporation method, Hall coefficient, R-software.

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