JPAST is biannual multidisciplinary journal starting from July 2011. Articles are invited for July 20 issue.
The Detection of Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria especially those Producing Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL)-Tuhiram Dixit, Dr. Mukta Sharma and Nalin Sajwan

The Detection of Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria especially those Producing Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL)

Tuhiram Dixit1,*, Dr. Mukta Sharma2 and Nalin Sajwan3

Technologist, Asian Institute of Medical Sciences, Faridabad, Haryana, India.

2Department of Microbiology, S.B.B. Dental College and Research Centre, Ghaziabad, U.P., India.

3Department  of Microbiology,  S.G.P.G.I.,  Lucknow, India.

 

Over the last few decades, β-lactams are the most widely used and favored antimicrobials worldwide, because of their efficacy, broad spectra and low toxicity. They inhibit the bacterial penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which are the enzymes that catalyze the final cross-linking of the bacterial cell wall polymer, peptidoglycan. However, due to heavy use of β-lactams antibiotics, bacteria developed various mechanism of resistance. Modification or substitution of the PBPs is important mechanism in gram-positive cocci, while production of β-lactamases is main cause of resistance among gram-negative bacilli. Mostly plasmid harbors the resistance gene and therefore, is crucial in disseminating resistance into previously susceptible species. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s there was a relentless rise in reports of resistance to β-lactams as a consequence of the selection of bacteria that produce β-lactamases.

Keywords: Penicillin-Binding Protein (PBP), β-lactams antibiotics, Gram-positive cocci, Gram-negative bacilli.

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Variation in Hall Coefficient with E-M Field of ZnTe Thin Film prepared by vacuum evaporation – Dr. Vaibhav Jain.

Variation in Hall Coefficient with E-M Field of ZnTe Thin Film prepared by vacuum evaporation

Dr. Vaibhav Jain

Deptt. of Physics, D.A.V.(P.G.) College, Bulandshahr, UP, India.

 

Thin film of ZnTe was prepared by vacuum evaporation method. The variation in Hall coefficient RH of prepared thin film was recorded with electromagnetic field of different frequencies (2-20 MHz at 2 MHz, steps) and of 5mV, and l0mV amplitudes. The statistical analysis of obtained data was done by R-software which showed that the value of Hall coefficient decreases significantly with increment in frequency of E-M field.

Keywords: Vacuum evaporation method, Hall coefficient, R-software.

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Fabrication of Organic Light Emitting Diodes on Nano-structured Indium Tin Oxide-R.K. Sharma, Dr. Vaibhav Jain, Dr. Arunesh Yadav and Ruchi Agarwal

Fabrication of Organic Light Emitting Diodes on Nano-structured Indium Tin Oxide

R.K. Sharma1,*, Dr. Vaibhav Jain2, Dr. Arunesh Yadav3 and Ruchi Agarwal4
1,*Research Scholor, Physics Departmant, Sri Venketeshwara University, Meerut, India.
2Assist. Professor, Physics Department, DAV (PG) College, Bulandshahr, India.
3Assist. Professor, Physics Department, ITS Engineering College, Greater Noida, India.
4Assist. Professor, Physics Department, Accurate Engineering College, Greater Noida, India.

 

We have fabricated Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) on nano-structured indium tin oxide films. The enhancement in extraction efficiency by a factor of 30% was found comparable to other expansive techniques for the fabrication of indium tin oxide layer. The electroluminescence spectra at viewing angles from normal to the substrates up to 600 off normal remain almost unchanged and does not show the angle dependence observed for other extraction efficiency enhancement techniques. The emission spectrum was also found to be stable with time for these OLEDs. The spectral uniformity with angle and time with enhanced extraction efficiency and cheap deposition technique could be of great interest for the application of down converted OLED.

Keywords: Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs), Electroluminescence (EL) spectra.

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Modeling and Simulation of a Grid Interactive Photovoltaic Power Plant-Dr. Rohit Verma

Modeling and Simulation of a Grid Interactive Photovoltaic Power Plant

 Dr. Rohit Verma
Associate Professor, NPTI, Faridabd, India.
 
 

This paper presents a simulation model of the electrical part of a grid interactive photovoltaic system. The model contains a detailed representation of the main components of the system that are the solar array, 3 phase inverter and LC filter inverter control circuit and load. A proper control of the DC/AC inverter is developed in order to synchronize the system to the grid. The grid interface inverter transfers the energy drawn from the photovoltaic (PV) array into the grid by keeping common DC coupling voltage constant. This research paper also focuses on the different PV technologies (amorphous silicon, polycrystalline) and their effect to the system in terms of energy output. A simulation model has been developed with the help of mathematical equations and its output has been verified with working solar PV plant. This paper can be useful for the PV power plant designers to analyze the output of the power plant by using the simulation model. This model is a simplified approach of the system’s individual modules.

Keywords: Grid interface inverter, PV array, Solar PV Plant.

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River/Canal Bank Water in Terms of Transmitting the Hazardous Microorganism in Human Population-A.S. Shishodia, Mukta Sharma, Ajit Joshi and Dilshad Ali

River/Canal Bank Water in Terms of Transmitting the Hazardous Microorganism in Human Population

A.S. Shishodia1,*, Mukta Sharma2, Ajit Joshi3 and Dilshad Ali4
1,*,3Department of Microbiology, Mewar University, Chittorgarh, Rajasthan, India.
2Department of Microbiology, S.B.B. Dental College and Research Centre, Ghaziabad, U.P., India.
4Department of Microbiology, C.C.S. University, Meerut, U.P., India.

The aim of present study is to determine the load of pathogenic microorganism and possible disease potentials of the water sources to prevent possible disease outbreak for the inhabitants. A total number of 50 water samples were collected from different river/canal bank sources and were subjected to standard microbiological analysis. The result of total heterotrophic bacterial count (cfu/ml) ranged between 21×105 to 16.6×106. Different bacterial isolates were microscopically and biochemically characterized as: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Streptococcus spp., and Proteus spp. In 50 water samples, 40(80.0%) samples were positive for Escherichia coli, 35(70.0%) for Staphylococcus spp., 25(50.0%) for Klebsiella spp., 25(50.0%) for Streptococcus spp., and 15(30.0%) for Proteus spp., respectively. This showed that Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp. occurred highest (80% and 70%) in water samples followed by Klebsiella and Streptococcus spp. (50.0%) while the lowest occurrence was recorded by Proteus spp. (30.0%), respectively. The results show that river/canal bank water sources are not free from enteric pathogens and expose users to diseases like dysentery, diarrhoea, skin, soft tissue, respiratory, urinary or respiratory tract infections, endovascular to wound infections etc.

Keywords: Pathogenic microorganism, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Streptococcus spp. and Proteus spp..

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Effects of low Amperage Current on the Protein Pattern of Potential Pathogen-Tuhiram Dixit, Dr. Mukta Sharma and Mayur Sharma

Effects of low Amperage Current on the Protein Pattern of Potential Pathogen

Tuhiram Dixit1,*, Dr. Mukta Sharma2 and Mayur Sharma3
1,*Technologist, Asian Institute of Medical Sciences, Faridabad, Haryana, India.
2Department of Microbiology, S.B.B. Dental College and Research Centre, Ghaziabad, U.P., India.
3Department  of Microbiology,  S.B.S.P.G.I.,  Dehradun, India.

 

Electrical current is known for bactericidal activity by influencing the inhibition of biological processes of organism at the cellular level. Electrical current has been reported to alleviate pain, probably by altering endorphin concentration, and speed up wound healing by increasing cell proliferation. Infection is a major clinical complication associated with the use of central venous catheters (CVCs). Treatment of these infections by antibiotics is relatively expensive. Not always successful and frequency necessitates catheter removal. Bacteria attached to device such as biofilms are quite typical, resistant both to antimicrobial agent and to host defense. Despite the fact that endogenous bacteria are beneficial to the host in their natural habitat (e.g. prevent the overgrowth of opportunistic pathogens and colonization by antibiotic resistant bacteria), many of these micro-organism are potentially pathogenic.

Keywords: Inhibition, Endorphin Concentration, Cell Proliferation, Central Venous Catheters (CVCs), Antimicrobial Agent, Endogenous Bacteria.

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Preliminary Simulation Results of Selective Emitter based Silicon Solar Cell-Anuj Kumar

Preliminary Simulation Results of Selective Emitter based Silicon Solar Cell

Anuj Kumar
Department of Physics, Keshav mahavidyalaya, Delhi University, New Delhi, India.

The lower cost solar cell reduces prices per watt, that can be achieved by the etches back method, so we have done single time Phosphors Diffusion on uniform mesh p-type Silicon wafer to reduce diffusion price but not at the cost of its efficiency. A n-type diffusion has been carried out on a fine mash p-type Silicone wafer having thicknesses 300 µm, resistivity 1 Ώ-cm, by using P2O5 gas as a diffusion source at constant diffusion parameters like temperature, source concentration and diffusion time to make Selective Emitter Silicon solar cells by using etches back method, in which etch active area behave as a conventional solar cell. We also screened different parameters of a solar cell under AM 1.5 spectra using SSUPRM4 a tool in advance semi-conductor device simulator Silvaco.

Keywords: Etch back, SSUPRM4.

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Intelligent Method for Resource Allocation in Grid Computing Using Multi Agent-Bhagwat M. Fulmante, Raj Singh, Abhijieet Kulshreshtha and Umashankar Sharma

Intelligent Method for Resource Allocation in Grid Computing Using Multi Agent

 
Bhagwat M. Fulmante1,*, Raj Singh2, Abhijieet Kulshreshtha3 and Umashankar Sharma4
1,*Research Scholar, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur, India.
2Research Scholar, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur, India.
3Professor, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur, India.
4Professor RJIT, BSF, Tekanpur, Gwalior, M.P., India.

 

 

In emerging technologies resource management is the key problem. This paper describes how to reduce the search time for the best available resources and assure instant provisioning of the lately added resources to the grid thereby using Artificial Intelligence, Multi-agent and Case Base Reasoning (CBR). To overcome the overhead of resource availability in grid computing, we have identified the formula which can efficiently identify the available nodes in the grid environment. The algorithm will efficiently search the nodes available as per requirement of the request of resources and searching is faster as compare to other existing algorithms. We have designed an algorithm which will identify the nodes available and the ideal node can also utilize. Each node will be equally loaded and resource allocation will be efficiently done. This approach significantly reduces the computational time of resource allocation. The Multi–agents has been used for decision making, selection and allocation faster for improving the productivity by reducing the searching time for resource allocation in grid environment. Each agent is assigned with some important task and will be communicating with other agents as input for next activity.

Keywords: Case Base Reasoning (CBR), Grid Environment, Resource Allocation and Multi-agent.

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Biochemical Parameter of Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) as a Link Marker to Metabolic Syndrome-Himanshu Tyagi, Vishal Modgil and Mahendra Nath

Biochemical Parameter of Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) as a Link Marker to Metabolic Syndrome

Himanshu Tyagi1,*, Vishal Modgil2 and Mahendra Nath3
1,*Ph.D. Scholor, Medical Biochemistry, Shivalik Hospital, Ghaziabad, India.
2Department of Medicine, Shivalik Hospital, Ghaziabad, India.
3L.L.R. Medical College, Meerut, India.

 

The role of the Enzyme Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) as a link marker to Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in Indians is significant. The MetS is a clustering of components that reflect over nutrition, sedentary lifestyles and resultant excess adiposity. Metabolic Syndrome is posing a major public health challenge to the health systems in developed and developing countries.  This study is an attempt to see the role of biochemical markers such as GGT & Blood glucose in Metabolic Syndrome in study cases of Indian population.  The 405 study subjects aged between 25-65 yrs from general population in Ghaziabad, India, were taken, who attended the hospital for general checkup. GGT and Blood Glucose of subjects were evaluated. On application of ATP 3rd criteria on the screened subject patients, they are classified. Our study found that the number of subjects having MetS was 173 (42.71% of total). In the subgroup of metabolic syndrome with diabetes, the total number of subjects was 105 (25.92%) in which age wise distribution was 26 (6.41%) in 25-45 yrs and 79 (19.50%) in 45-65 yrs. In the second subgroup of metabolic syndrome without diabetes total number of subjects was 68 (16.79%) in which age wise distribution was 16 (3.95%) in 25-45 yrs and 52 (12.83%) in 45-65 yrs. The study proposes the inclusion of biochemical parameter GGT in the criteria for defining cases of metabolic syndrome, so that more metabolic syndrome cases can be picked up at earliest. This issue is especially pertinent for the Indian patient population in whom cardiovascular disease is becoming increasingly common in both sexes and in age group of 25-65 yrs. There should be emphasis on detection of metabolic syndrome and intensification of targeted preventive strategies. In this study; there is strong evidence that GGT should be included in the case definition criteria or diagnostic criteria of Metabolic Syndrome. The study proposes the inclusion of biochemical parameter GGT in the criteria for defining cases of metabolic syndrome in Indians. So that more cases of Metabolic Syndrome can be picked up at earliest.

Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT).

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Macro Cyclic Antibiotics as Chiral Supramolecular Receptors for Enantioslective Sensing in Biological Samples- Dr. Rooma Tyagi

­­­Macro Cyclic Antibiotics as Chiral Supramolecular Receptors for Enantioslective Sensing in Biological Samples

Dr. Rooma Tyagi
Chemistry department, S.S.V. (P.G.) College, Hapur, U.P., INDIA.

 

Enantioselective Potentiometric Membrane electrodes (EMPEs) based on macroyclic antibiotics derivative were proposed for determination of L-and D-enantiomers of glyceric acid in serum samples. The linear concentration ranges for the proposed sensor were in the F mol/L to P mol/L magnitude order. The sensor proved high reliability for the enantioanalysis of L & D glyeric acid in serum samples.

Keywords: Enantioselective potentiometric determination, Macro cyclic Antibiotics derivative and Biological samples.

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Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Programme of India: Proposed Model for A State-Dr. Rohit Verma

Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Programme of India:  Proposed Model for A State

Dr. Rohit Verma
Associate Professor, NPTI, Faridabad, Haryana, India.

 

The Accelerated Power Development & Reform Programme (APDRP) was launched in February 2001 by the Union government of India to promote the distribution reforms. But the APDRP could not achieve the desired goals within the stipulated time. Government of India rethought its course of action and came up with another ambitious project, Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Program (RAPDRP) to overcome the shortcomings of APDRP and to reduce the Aggregate Technical and Commercial (AT&C) losses to 15% by implementing projects within 18 to 24 months.  Restructured APDRP was approved in July 2008 for implementation in the 11th five year plan. The focus of the programme is on actual, demonstrable performance in terms of sustained loss reduction. This paper analyses the major reasons behind the failure of APDRP and discusses the proposed scheme of R-APDRP and its challenges. The paper also provides a model for R-APDRP scheme for a sample State of India. This paper may be a helpful tool for policy maker and state government.

Keywords: Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Program (RAPDRP), Aggregate Technical and Commercial (AT&C) losses, Power sector Reforms.

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Effect of Growth Conditions on Conductivity of Indium Tin Oxide Films-R.K. Sharma, Dr. Vaibhav Jain, Dr. Arunesh Yadav and Ruchi Agarwal.

Effect of Growth Conditions on Conductivity of Indium Tin Oxide Films

R.K. Sharma1,*, Dr. Vaibhav Jain2, Dr. Arunesh Yadav3 and Ruchi Agarwal4
1,*Research Scholor, Physics Departmant, Sri Venketeshwara University, Meerut, India.
2Assist. Professor, Physics Department, DAV (PG) College, Bulandshahr, India.
3Assist. Professor, Physics Department, ITS Engineering College, Greater Noida, India.
4Assist. Professor, Physics Department, Accurate Engineering College, Greater Noida, India.

 

Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were grown using radio frequency (RF) sputtering technique. Conductivity or sheet resistance of the ITO films grown by this technique depends on various conditions such as the post annealing temperature, substrate temperature and the composition of the gas used for the deposition. Current work presents the study on the variation of sheet resistance by varying the conditions of growth. All the parameters such as post annealing temperature, substrate temperature and composition of gas used were found to affect the sheet resistance of ITO films.

Keywords: Indium tin oxide (ITO) films, Radio Frequency (RF) sputtering technique.

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Thermodynamic Functions of 1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-2, 6-dioxopyrimidine-4-carboxylic Acid-Sushil Kumar and Dr. S.D. Sharma

Thermodynamic Functions of 

1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-2, 6-dioxopyrimidine-4-

carboxylic Acid

Sushil Kumar1,* and Dr. S.D. Sharma2
1,*Assistant Professor, SRM University, NCR campus Modinagar, India.
2Retd. Reader/Principal, D.N.P.G College, Meerut, India.

 

The statistical computation of an ideal gas state thermodynamic functions namely enthalpy, entropy, free energy, heat capacity of 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-2,6-dioxopyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid have been performed. These calculations have been made at a pressure of 1 atmosphere in the temperature range 100 °K to 1500 °K under rigid rotor harmonic oscillator approximation for 1 mole of perfect gas & on the basis of vibrational frequencies obtained from FTIR & Raman spectra & also with the help of moment of inertia.

Keywords: Enthalpy, Entropy, Free Energy, Heat Capacity, FTIR, Raman Spectra.

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ξ-Regular Spaces-M.C. Sharma, Poonam Sharma, Shobha Sharma and Mandeep Singh

ξ-Regular Spaces

M.C. Sharma1, Poonam Sharma2, Shobha Sharma3 and Mandeep Singh4,*
1, 2, 3Department of Mathematics, N.R.E.C. College, Khurja, U.P., India.
4,*Department of Mathematics, S.S. (P.G.) College Shikarpur, U.P., India.

The aim of this paper is to introduce and study a new class of regular space called ξ-regular spaces by using ξ-open sets introduced by R. Devi, S.N. Rajappriya, K.M. Swamy and H. Maki in Scientiae Mathematical Japonicae (2006) and obtained several properties of such a space. Moreover, we obtained some new characterizations and preservation theorems of ξ-regular spaces.

Keywords: ξ, ξ*, ξ**, gα, rgα-closed sets, ξ, ξ*, ξ**, gα, rgα-open sets, ξ-open, almost ξ-open, pre ξ-closed, ξg-closed, almost ξg-closed functions, ξ-regular spaces.

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