JPAST is biannual multidisciplinary journal starting from July 2011. Articles are invited for July 20 issue.
Study of Chemical State of Iron in Giral Lignite Samples using 57Fe Mossbauer Spectroscopy – K.R. Patel, Renu, Beena Bhatia and Sahiram.

Study of Chemical State of Iron in Giral Lignite Samples using 57Fe Mossbauer Spectroscopy

K.R. Patel1, Renu2, Beena Bhatia3,* and Sahiram4

1,2,3,4Mossbauer spectroscopy Laboratory, Department of Physics, J.N.V. University, Jodhpur, India.

 

57Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy and powder XRD has been used to characterize the iron-bearing phase in the lignite samples collected from Giral, Rajasthan. It is found that the samples contain anomalous presence of Jarosite which is generally not found in lignite samples. Simultaneously powder XRD spectra show dominating presence of Ca2SO4 It appears that both sulphate minerals (Jarosite and Gypsum Ca2SO4) should be highly correlated. The significance of anomalous presence of Jarosite in lignite samples is discussed.

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Effect of E-M Field on Hall Coefficient of CdS Thin Film – Vaibhav Jain, Ruchi Agrawal, Dr. A. K. Sharma, Dr. Pawan Kumar and Dr. Abhijit Kulshreshtha

Effect of E-M Field on Hall Coefficient of CdS Thin Film

Vaibhav Jain1,*, Ruchi Agrawal2, Dr. A. K. Sharma3, Dr. Pawan Kumar4 and Dr. Abhijit Kulshreshtha5

1,*Research Scholar, Deptt. of Physics, Faculty of Engg. & Tech., Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan

2Research Scholar, Deptt. of Physics, JJTU, Jhunjunu, Rajasthan, India

3Deptt. of Physics, D.A.V. (P.G.) College, Bulandshahr, India

4Deptt. of Physics, Agarsen Degree College, Sikandarabad, Bulandshahr, India

5Deptt. of Physics, Faculty of Engg. & Tech., Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan

 

Thin film of CdS was prepared by vacuum evoparation method. The variation in Hall coefficient RH of prepared thin film was recorded with electromagnetic field of different frequencies (5-15 MHz at 1MHz steps) and of 10mV, and 15mV amplitudes. The statistical analysis of obtained data was done by R-software which showed that the value of Hall coefficient decreases significantly with increment in frequency of E-M field.

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A BJT Based Soil Moisture Sensor for Irrigation Monitoring – Sanyam Agarwal, Arvind Gautam, Pankaj Singh and Rohit Sharma

A BJT Based Soil Moisture Sensor for Irrigation Monitoring

Sanyam Agarwal1,*, Arvind Gautam2, Pankaj Singh3 and Rohit Sharma3

1,*Bansal Institute of Engineering &Technology, Meerut

2SDCollege of Engineering &Technology Muzaffarnagar,

3SRM University, Ghaziabad

 

A soil moisture sensor is an integral aspect of the various precise irrigation techniques. This paper focuses on a BJT based soil moisture sensor which can be implemented in a large array spreading throughout an irrigated field. Soil conductivity depends on the moisture content around the probes. This is particularly useful for monitoring moisture levels around roots of crops planted in an organized manner. The network architecture allows real time monitoring. A microcontroller is used to scan the array of sensors for output values by operating a switch IC, to calculate the moisture percentage value corresponding to the voltage output of each sensor, to display the percentage moisture value or to operate the valves in drip irrigation or sprinkler systems. The whole architecture is easy to implement and cost-effective. The paper also shows the results of the experiments conducted using this sensor to highlight the effect of the potash and urea fertilizers on the soil properties.

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Development of Vitamin and Dietary Fibre Enriched Carrot Pomace and Wheat Flour based Buns – Kshitij Kumar and Navneet Kumar

Development of Vitamin and Dietary Fibre Enriched Carrot Pomace and Wheat Flour based Buns

Kshitij Kumar1,* and  Navneet Kumar2

1,*Agricultural Engineering Department, Sir Chhotu Ram Institute of Engineering and Technology, CCSU, Meerut

2Agricultural Engineering Department, Rastriya Kisan (P G) College, Shamli, Muzaffarnagar

 

Buns are basically small sized wheat based bread, which are very popular due to its small shape and complete consumption at one time. The buns are generally used as burgers and other fast food items. The buns do not possess a good quantity of vitamins and dietary fiber. Hence, studies were conducted to develop carrot pomace and fine wheat flour based buns. Product development was done by conventional method utilizing carrot pomace in the different proportions of (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10%). All the ingredients were mixed to obtain good consistency dough, later on these were baked in hot air-oven at 177±20C for up to 40 minutes to a golden brown Colour. It was observed that the expansion, water solubility and absorption index decreased with the increase in pomace proportion, whereas bulk density and moisture content increased with the increase in pomace proportion. It was further noted that the expansion, water solubility and absorption index and bulk density were having significant correlation to the pomace proportion (p<0.05).  The buns prepared with carrot pomace at 2.5% levels, showed a very good result in sensory evaluation. The product was recommended for production of carrot buns.

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A Review of Digital Image Steganography – Pradeep Kumar Saraswat and Dr. R. K. Gupta

A Review of Digital Image Steganography

Pradeep Kumar Saraswat1,* and  Dr. R. K. Gupta2

1,*Research Scholar, IT, Singhania University, Rajasthan, India

2Professor, Faculty of Engg. & Tech., HR Group of Institutions, Ghaziabad, U.P., India

 

Steganography is defined as the science or even possibly art of hiding likely critical information within other, seemingly benign information. The point of steganography is to prevent the detection of information leakage, not encrypt data. However, there is nothing stopping a user, malicious or otherwise from first encrypting a secret message and then embedding it inside harmless information. The process only deals with embedding one bit stream (the hidden information) inside of another bit stream. Either bit stream can be of any form. However, steganography is frequently used in conjunction with cryptography. In one method, the plain-text would first be encrypted and then feed to the steganography program. This ensures that if the hidden message is retrieved, the plain-text will still be encrypted. The reverse procedure also works. Two technologies that are closely related to steganography are watermarking and fingerprinting. These technologies are mainly concerned with the protection of intellectual property, thus the algorithms have different requirements than steganography. In watermarking all of the instances of an object are “marked” in the same way. The kind of information hidden in objects when using watermarking is usually a signature to signify origin or ownership for the purpose of copyright protection. With fingerprinting on the other hand, different, unique marks are embedded in distinct copies of the carrier object that are supplied to different customers. This enables the intellectual property owner to identify customers who break their licensing agreement by supplying the property to third parties.

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Limnological Profile of a Sewage Polluted Fresh Water Pond of District Mirzapur – Yashodhara Sharma and Rashmi Jaiswal

Limnological Profile of a Sewage Polluted Fresh Water Pond of District Mirzapur

Yashodhara Sharma1,* and Rashmi Jaiswal1

1,*Department of Zoology. H.N.B. (P.G.) College Naini, Allahabad-211008, India

 

The present article deals with the limnological profile of a man made fresh water pond situated in the village Manguri belonging to Chetganj town area of district Mirzapur. It was constructed in 1958 for the welfare of village people but now it has become a useless water body. As it receives domestic sewage from a residential police line colony established later on the eastside of the pond) without any pretreatment. Limnological investigations of pond water indicate towards high concentration of pH, TSS, hardness, turbidity, alkalinity, BOD, nitrates and phosphates alongwith excessive growth of members of Cyanophycea.

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Drought Analysis of Southern Part of Chhattisgarh Agro-Climatic Plain Zone: A Case Study of Bilaspur District – Vijay Singh and R. K. Isaac

Drought Analysis of Southern Part of Chhattisgarh Agro-Climatic Plain Zone: A Case Study of Bilaspur District

Vijay Singh1,* and R. K. Isaac1

1,*Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering

Allahabad Agricultural Institute-Deemed University, Allahabad

 

Rainfall data of 20 years (1982-2001) based on standard weeks was analyzed for Bilaspur District of Chattisgarh State. The earliest dates of monsoon periods were determined along with their deviations from the mean value. The frequency of dry and wet weeks was calculated by using the concept developed by Pandarinath by considering 20mm rainfall in a week as a demarcation line. Dry and wet spells in pre monsoon, monsoon, and post monsoon periods were estimated by using Markov Chain Model. The monthly maximum rainfall at different probability levels was calculated by using Gumble Probability Method. It was observed that there were 23 dry weeks in pre monsoon and 19 wet spells in monsoon at 0.75 probability density, which was found in close proximity with the observed rainfall for the year 2001. The estimation of deficit periods showed that there was a need of irrigation water especially in the 20th to 23rd weeks and 30th to 33rd weeks after  transplanting of paddy crop. Moisture deficit periods were calculated by comparing the mean monthly evapo-transpiration values with the mean monthly rainfall values of Chhattisgarh.

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Analysis of Solid Waste Management Strategies in Major Cities of Uttar Pradesh in India – Divya Agarwal, Anil Kumar Gupta and Manoj Kumar Agarwal

Analysis of  Solid Waste Management Strategies in Major Cities of  Uttar Pradesh in India

Divya Agarwal1,*, Anil Kumar Gupta2 and Manoj Kumar Agarwal3

1,*Accurate Institute of Management & Technology, Applied Sciences & Humanities Department, Greater Noida

2National Institute of Disaster Management (Division of Policy & Planning), Government of India, IIPA Campus, New Delhi 110 002, India

3DJ College of Engineering & Technology , Modinagar, India

 

India is a developing country with growing economy, indicating high resource consumption and waste generation particularly in urban sector. Municipal solid waste is disposed unscientifically in most of the urban Indian cities, breaking environmental pathways. Present study aims at developing an inventory of solid waste disposal facilities in densely populated major cities of Uttar Pradesh by gathering and analysing relevant data on primary and secondary collection and disposal systems e.g. per capita generation, per capita disposal, collection efficiency, collection & storage facility, transportation facilities, treatment & disposals and the major hindrances in Solid Waste Management (SWM). Solid Waste Management is poor with respect to collection efficiency and segregation of waste.

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Factors Influencing B2C M-Commerce Satisfaction and Trust towards M-Commerce Service Providers – Avdhesh Gupta, Dr. Pankaj Madan and Shalini Gupta

Factors Influencing B2C M-Commerce Satisfaction and Trust towards M-Commerce Service Providers

Avdhesh Gupta1,*, Dr. Pankaj Madan2 and Shalini Gupta3

1,*Assistant Professor, College of Engineering Roorkee

2Associate Professor, Gurukul Kangri Vishwavidayala, Haridwar

3Assistant Professor, Virendra Swarup Group of Institutions, Kanpur

 

The objective of this study is to providing the factors influencing satisfaction of B2C operations and trust towards m-commerce service providers. The sample size consists of 200 respondents. The results analysis shows that customer satisfaction towards the vendor was significantly influenced by ease-of-use, responsiveness, and brand image. The customer trust towards the vendor in m-commerce is affected by responsiveness, brand image and satisfaction towards the vendor in m-commerce. Based on the analysis, m-commerce service providers should focus on those factors, which can provide more satisfaction and trust from the customers. For m-commerce service providers, the results enable them to better develop the trust in m-commerce customers.

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Analysis of Fault Current Limiter (FCL) for Voltage Sag Mitigation through MATLAB/SIMULINK – Vibhor Chauhan, Rishi Pratap Singh and Seema Dhariwal

Analysis of Fault Current Limiter (FCL) for Voltage Sag Mitigation through MATLAB/SIMULINK

Vibhor Chauhan1,*, Rishi Pratap Singh1 and Seema Dhariwal1

1,*Department of Electrical Engineering, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, India

Continues growth of electrical energy demand is resulting in a corresponding increase in the short circuit in power system, which results in voltage sag problems and threat to power quality in the system. Several solutions have been implemented, including the use of Fault Current Limiter (FCL), in order to reduce circuit breakers rated capacity and to limit the electromagnetic stress in associated equipment. This paper presents a study of the impact of fault current limiter in power system performance and hence improving the power quality. In order to evaluate the impact of fault current limiter in power system performance, simulation models of power system performance with ‘FCL’ are used. For simulation model development, MATLAB simulation tool “SIMULINK” software is used. A distribution system fed from single source is used to assess the impact of ‘FCL’ to power system performance.

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Assessment of Distribution Based SRGM with the Effect of Change-Point and Imperfect Debugging Incorporating Irregular Fluctuations – Ompal Singh, Adarsh Anand, Jagvinder Singh and P.K. Kapur

Assessment of Distribution Based SRGM with the Effect of Change-Point and Imperfect Debugging Incorporating Irregular Fluctuations

Ompal Singh1,  Adarsh Anand1,*, Jagvinder Singh1 and  P. K. Kapur2

1,*Department of Operational Research, University of Delhi, Delhi, India

2Amity International Business School, Amity University, Noida, U.P., India

 

Computer software has progressively turned out to be an essential component in modern technologies. Testability is the probability whether tests will detect a fault, given that a fault in the program exists. How efficiently the faults will be uncovered depends upon the testability of the software. Various researchers have proposed qualitative and quantitative techniques to improve and measure the testability of software. Furthermore, it is well known fact that the progress of software testing is influenced by various uncertainty factors like effort expenditure, skill of test personal, testing tool, defect density and irregular state of software fault-report phenomena on the bug tracking system. Hence, there is an irregular fluctuation in fault detection/removal rate during testing phase. In this paper, distribution based software reliability growth models have been developed by applying Itô type Stochastic Differential Equations in order to incorporate (i) the irregular fluctuation in the fault detection process due to various uncertainty factor during testing phase; (ii) two types of imperfect debugging and (iii) change-point concept. The proposed stochastic differential equation based models have been validated using real data sets. Various comparison criteria results for goodness of fit have also been presented in the paper.

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Thermochromic Studies of MEH-PPV – Bhuvneshwar Prasad Gaur, Dr. A. K. Sharma, Vaibhav Jain and Dr. Anil Govindan

Thermochromic Studies of MEH-PPV

Bhuvneshwar Prasad Gaur1,*,  Dr. A. K. Sharma1, Vaibhav Jain2 and Dr. Anil Govindan3

1,*Research Scholar Deptt. of Physics, D.A.V. (P.G.) College, Bulandshahr, India

1Head, Deptt. of Physics, D.A.V. (P.G.) College, Bulandshahr, India

2Assosiate prof. Deptt. of Physics, D.N. (P.G.) College, Gulaothi, Bulandshahr

3Associate prof. M.M.H. (P.G.) College, Ghaziabad

 

In this work we studied the optical properties of Poly [2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) using polymeric blends with polystyrene. The photoluminescence spectrum of (MEH-PPV) present three characteristic peaks correlating to aggregate electronic transition at 608, 674 and 742 nm at 10° K. An addition of Polystyrene in MEH-PPV films induces a red shift in the absorption spectrum and the photoluminescence spectrum presents a new peak at high energy centred at about 572 nm at 10° K. It is attributed to intra band transition between localized intraband states.

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On the Development of Software Reliability Growth Model Based on Features Enhancement – Jagvinder Singh, Ompal Singh, Deepti Aggrawal and Indarpal Singh

On the Development of Software Reliability Growth Model Based on Features Enhancement

Jagvinder Singh1, Ompal Singh1, Deepti Aggrawal1 and Indarpal Singh2,*

1Department of Operational Research, University of Delhi, India

2,*D.N.(P.G.) College, Gulaothi, Bulandshahar, UP, India

 

The software industry can be considered as the typical high technology industry where rate of innovation and knowledge creation plays a pivotal role for continued firm growth. In the last few decades it has been observed that the world of software development management has evolved rapidly due to the intensified market competition. In particular the use of feature-addition model of software products in the industry is fast becoming the commonplace. The up-gradation model can be characterized by increasing the number of features in the software that will give the firm competitive edge in the market. The up-gradation of the system is done by extending it through add-ons, interfacing with other applications etc. Continuous up-gradation of software’s also brings complexity in the systems once it failed to work properly. In recent years, there has been a growing interest to predict the link between the rates of failure and the reliability of software. Many software reliability growth models (SRGMs) have been proposed over past three decades that estimate the reliability of a software system as it undergoes changes through the removal of failure causing faults. But unfortunately most of the models didn’t consider anything about the increase in failure rate once an up-gradation is made on the software. The objective of this paper is to propose the software reliability growth model that incorporates the effect of enhancement of features on software during testing and debugging process. Results have been supplemented with numerical examples.

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Indexing of Building Materials with Embodied, Operational Energy and Environmental Sustainability with Reference to Green Buildings – Ashok Kumar, D. Buddhi and D. S. Chauhan

Indexing of Building Materials with Embodied, Operational Energy and Environmental Sustainability with Reference to Green Buildings

         Ashok Kumar1, D. Buddhi2,* and D. S. Chauhan3

1A2Z Maintenance and Engineering Services Ltd, Sector 32, Plot No. 44, Gurgaon- 122001, India

2,*Shivalik College of Engineering, Shimla Bypass Dehradun -248197, India

3Uttarakhand Technical University, Suddhowala, Dehradun -248007, India

 

There is good number of options to design energy efficient/green buildings. One of the objectives of green building is to conserve the natural resources and substantial energy is consumed in the operation of air conditioning system. In this paper total usage of energy (embodied and operational energy) has been calculated for fire clay bricks and ash blocks building material. Energy and environment indices were calculated and it was found that use of ash block as replacement of fire clay bricks can reduce significantly the heat load, size of air conditioning system and hence contributes towards saving of natural resources and environment.

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Cost Benefit Analysis of Three Unit Redundant System Model with Correlated Failures and Repairs – Dr. V. K. Sharma and Surendra Prabhat Gupta

Cost Benefit Analysis of Three Unit Redundant System Model with Correlated Failures and Repairs

Dr. V. K. Sharma1 and Surendra Prabhat Gupta1,*

1Reader and Head, Department of Mathematics, D.N.(P.G.) College, Gulaothi, Bulandshahr

1,*Research Scholar, Department of Mathematics, D.N.(P.G.) College, Gulaothi, Bulandshahr

 

In this paper, an attempt is made to study an analysis of three unit redundant system model with correlated failures and repair times. In this work analysis of reliability and mean time to system failure, availability analysis, busy period analysis and profit function analysis are studied. Also graphical study of the system model is shown. The result indicated that higher correlation between the failure and repair times provides the better system performance.

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