JPAST is biannual multidisciplinary journal starting from July 2011. Articles are invited for July 20 issue.
Green Concrete: A Novel Approach for Waste Utilization and Reconstruction – Dr. Vaibhav Jain.

Green Concrete: A Novel Approach for Waste Utilization and Reconstruction

Dr. Vaibhav Jain

Physics Department, DAV (PG) College, Bulandshahr, UP, India.

 

Green concrete is a concept of thinking environment into concrete considering every aspect from raw materials manufacture over mixture design to structural design, construction and service life. Green concrete is a type of concrete which resembles the conventional concrete but the production or usage of such concrete requires minimum amount of energy and causes least harm to the environment. Since it uses the recycled aggregates and materials, it reduces the extra load in landfills and mitigates the wastage of aggregates. Thus, the net CO2 emissions are reduced. The reuse of materials also contributes intensively to economy. Green concrete can be considered elemental to sustainable development since it is eco-friendly itself. One of the practices to manufacture green concrete involves reduction of amount of cement in the mix, which helps in reducing the overall cement consumption. The use of waste materials also solves the problem of disposing the excessive amount of industrial wastes. This paper discuses the importance of Green Concrete in the present day context and highlights its merits over conventional concrete which otherwise posing a serious threat to the environment through global warming.

Keywords: Green concrete, eco-friendly, waste material, global warning.

Full Paper


Prevalence and Antibiotic Sensitivity ofEnterococcus sp. from Mobile Phones of Doctors and Nurses – Tuhi Ram and Dr. Mukta Sharma.

Prevalence and Antibiotic Sensitivity ofEnterococcus sp. from Mobile Phones of Doctors and Nurses

Tuhi Ram1,* and Dr. Mukta Sharma2

1,*Research Scholor, Medical Microbiology, Singhania University, Distt. Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan, India.

2Professor & Head, Department of Microbiology, SBB Dental College, Hospital and Research Centre Ghaziabad, U.P., India.

 

Mobile phone may facilitate frequent transmission of bacterial isolates from one person to another. The telephone and computer accessories are well known objects for the spread of infectious agents to healthy or immunocompromised individuals not only in hospitals but also in community. The total of 472 swab samples of mobile phone from hospital personnel were collected and studied for the presence of pathogens. The total bacterial growth obtained from mobile samples was 98.7% (466/472), from hospital population, whereas Enterococcus sp. prevalence was 13.9% (65/466), the growth of Enterococcus sp. isolated from mobile phones of doctors was 14.2% (14/98) and from nurses mobile phones it was 11.4% (17/149) whereas from health care workers it was 13.4% (53/393) and non health care it was 16.4% (12/73). The antibiotic sensitivity of Enterococcus sp. was found resistant all antibiotics except cloxacillin (100%), co-trimoxazole (55.3%) and gentamicin (52.3%).      

Keywords: Enterococcus sp. antibiotic sensitivity, nosocomial infection and mobile phones.

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Study to Assess Antimicrobial Susceptibility ofStaphylococcus sp. from Mobile phone users in Hospital Population – Tuhi Ram and Dr. Mukta Sharma.

Study to Assess Antimicrobial Susceptibility ofStaphylococcus sp. from Mobile phone users in Hospital Population

Tuhi Ram1,* and Dr. Mukta Sharma2

1,*Research Scholor, Medical Microbiology, Singhania University, Distt. Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan, India.

2Professor & Head, Department of Microbiology, SBB Dental College, Hospital and Research Centre Ghaziabad, U.P., India.

 

Mobile phones may act as a reservoir of pathogen which in turn may cause significant loss in the form of morbidity and mortality. The distribution pattern of pathogens varies with sampling site and also depends on mode of transmission. The organisms isolated from cell phones causes many infections. But some organisms developed resistance against some antibiotics. The total of 472 swab samples of mobile phone from hospital personnel were collected and studied for the presence of pathogens. Bacterial growth was obtained from 98.7% (466/472) of the mobile phones from hospital population. Staphylococcus sp. showed maximum growth 63.7% (297/466), Staphylococcus sp. was observed resistant to six antibiotics out of twelve antibiotics that we check, while it was sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin (96.2%), roxithromycin, tetracycline and pefloxacin (93.6%) and gentamicine (54.8%).

Keywords: Staphylococcus sp., Antibiotic sensitivity of Staphylococcus.

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Syngas as An Alternative Fuel Used in Internal Combustion Engines: A Review – Anushka Pradhan, Prashant Baredar, Anil Kumar.

Syngas as An Alternative Fuel Used in Internal Combustion Engines: A Review

Anushka Pradhan1, Prashant Baredar2, Anil Kumar3,*

1Research Scholar, Energy Centre, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, India.

2Associate Professor, Energy Centre, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, India.

3,*Post Doctoral Fellow, Energy Tech., Research Center, Dept. of Mech. Engg.,

Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand.

 

Among the various renewable energy sources, synthesis gas (syngas) offers a promising opportunity for sustainable development in the energy and transportation sectors. Syngas can provide an economically viable solution, in the areas where the price of petroleum and diesel fuels are high, or where supplies are unreliable. This paper contains the information regarding the effect of particle size, and the moisture content of feedstock on the quality of producer gas. Coupling of syngas to the internal combustion engines (ICEs) is a feasible technology for the generation of heat and power on a small scale. Here, effect of syngas addition on performance of a spark ignition (SI) engine and compression ignition (CI) engine is also studied. This review also presents combustion features like calorific value, laminar flame velocity and flammability limits of syngas and its effects on the combustion in an internal combustion engines.

Keywords: Synthesis Gas (Syngas), Internal combustion engine, Calorific value, Laminar flame speed, Flammability limits.

 Full Paper


Impact of Static Magnetic Field & Varying Electromagnetic Field upon Resistance of CdS Thin Film – Dr. Vaibhav Jain.

Impact of Static Magnetic Field & Varying Electromagnetic Field upon Resistance of CdS Thin Film

Dr. Vaibhav Jain

Assistant Professor, DAV (PG) College, Bulandshahr, UP, India.

 

In the present study we take CdS thin film of thickness t = 0.21 µm, Resistance of CdS thin film is measured in the magnetic field range 0.1T to 0.6 T with 0.1T steps and in the frequency range 2-8 MHz in the 1 MHz steps. The observed experimental data showed that resistance remain constant with change in strength of Magnetic field but it decreases as frequency of Electromagnetic field increases.

Keywords: Magnetic field, Electromagnetic field.

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Study of Geometrical Parameters of Substituted Benjoquinones and Phenols by Density Functional Theory: A review – Vinita Garg.

Study of Geometrical Parameters of Substituted Benjoquinones and Phenols by Density Functional Theory: A review

Vinita Garg

Department of Chemistry

D.N. (P.G.) College, Gulaothi, Bulandshahr, U.P., India.

Density functional theory is a quantum mechanical modeling method used to investigate the electronic structure of many body systems. In the present review different parameters of substituted benjoquinone compounds and phenol compounds are taken. FT-IR, FT- Raman spectra etc. of these compounds are recorded and the structural and spectroscopic data of these compounds in the ground state have been calculated by using Hatree- Fock and Density functional methods. On the basis of agreement between calculated and experimental results of the fundamental vibrational modes. I concluded that density functional theory gives good explanation.

Keyword: Density functional theory (DFT), FT- IR and FT-Raman spectra, Hatree Fock theory, Vibrational modes.

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Effect of Solvents and Substituents on the Fluorescence Behaviour of Coumarin Dye Lasers – Rajesh Giri.

Effect of Solvents and Substituents on the Fluorescence Behaviour of Coumarin Dye Lasers

Rajesh Giri

Department of Physics and Electronics

Rajdhani College, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India.

 

In order to investigate the effect of solvents and substituents on the fluorescence behaviour of coumarin derivatives the absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of 4–phenyl substituted coumarins namely: 4-phenyl-7-hydroxy coumarin (1), 4-phenyl-7-methoxy coumarin (2), 4-phenyl-6-hydroxy-7-methoxy coumarin (3), 4-pheny-6,7-dimethoxy  coumarin (4) and 4-phenyl-6,7-dihydroxy coumarin (5) have been studied in various organic solvents of varying dipole moment. It was found that in a given solvent the position of the absorption and fluorescence maxima depends on the nature and position of the additional substituent group linked to the 4-phenyl coumarin and the wavelengths shifts obtained are interpreted in terms of the changes in the mobility of π electrons. From the fluorescence emission spectra of the present coumarins it was found that the 4-phenyl coumarins are less fluorescent and show a smaller change in polarity on excitation as compared to the corresponding 3- henyl derivatives. These changes are interpreted in terms of the possible resonance structures of the coumarin derivatives.

Keywords: Fluorescence, Dipole moment, Resonance structures.

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A Survey of Road Side Flora Growing Under Stress of Auto Exhaust Pollution in City Ghaziabad – Dr. Anita Pawar.

A Survey of Road Side Flora Growing Under Stress of Auto Exhaust Pollution in City Ghaziabad

Dr. Anita  Pawar

Asst. Prof. Department of  Botany.

N.R.E.C College, Khurja  U.P., India.

This paper deals with the survey of different plants growing along the road side in the stressed conditions of auto-exhaust  pollution in city Ghaziabad. These are generally herbs, shrubs and trees. Some of them are wild species many of them are economically important. Due to auto-exhaust pollution some of them suffer from visible injuries and have adverse effect on growth. Even some plant species are found comparatively resistant to these stressed conditions of auto-exhaust pollution.

Keywords: Auto-exhaust, Pollution, Herb, Shrub, Tree.

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On the Fluorescence Quenching of Substituted Coumarins – Rajesh Giri.

On the Fluorescence Quenching of Substituted Coumarins

Rajesh Giri

Department of Physics and Electronics

Rajdhani College, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India.

 

In the present work the effect of different concentration of halide quenchers (Cl, Br, I) on  4-methyl-5-ethoxy-7-methoxy coumarin (1) and 4-methyl-5,7-diethoxy  coumarin (2) in aqueous solutions have been carried out at 200 temperature. It was observed that the fluorescence intensity of these coumarin derivatives decrease with increase in the concentration of the quenchers except Clquencher. Further, it was observed that the quenching due to halide ions proceeds via both a diffusional and static quenching process. The rate constants for diffusional as well as static component of quenching process have been calculated using modified Stern–Volmer relation. From the observed data it was found that I ion has very high quenching ability than Br ion and Cl ion behaves almost like a non-quencher. It was interpreted in terms of the sphere of action model by showing that the value of radius of sphere of action of the halide ion quencher is greater than the sum of the radii of the respective coumarin and quencher. Consequently, the order of the quenching ability of the halide quencher was found to be as I>Br>Cl and interestingly this is in the same order as of the ionizing energy of these halide ions. The present quenching process has been attributed to the electron transfer resulting between the colliding species.

Keywords: Halide quenchers, Coumarin derivatives, Stern–Volmer relation.

Full Paper


An Experimental Study of Aerodynamic Drag on the Body of Road Vehicle – Dr. Vakkar Ali

An Experimental Study of Aerodynamic Drag on the Body of Road Vehicle

Dr. Vakkar Ali

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Majmaah University, K.S.A.

 

Any moving object through a fluid experiences a force in the direction opposite to the motion which is due to the pressure difference and shear forces on the surface of the object. If we resolve the resultant force in the direction of flow and normal to flow then there are termed as aerodynamic drag force, aerodynamic lift force respectively. If aerodynamic drag acting on the automobiles or aero planes is less, then it will consume a lesser power resulting in less fuel consumption. In the present proposed study we have look after practical aspect of an model of automobile car, (Maruti Esteem). For practical approach, we have to analyze the available model to see the factors, which may reduce drag force on the surface of the moving body. In the present work drag force is calculated on the body of car model experimentally on the basis of our findings drag force is directly proportional to the angle of wind screen, velocity, surface, and fluid viscosity.

Keywords: Aerodynamic drag force, Aerodynamic lift force.

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Prevalence and Biochemical Characterization of Bacteria Isolated from some River/Canal Bank Water Sources, Door of Transport Vehicles and Shop Counters of Western UP and Uttrakhand area in India – A.S. Shishodia*, Dr. Ajit Joshi and Dr. Mukta Sharma.

Prevalence and Biochemical Characterization of Bacteria Isolated from some River/Canal Bank Water Sources, Door of Transport Vehicles and Shop Counters of Western UP and Uttrakhand area in India

A.S. Shishodia1,*, Dr. Ajit Joshi2 and Dr. Mukta Sharma3

1,*Research Scholar, Department of Microbiology, Mewar University, Chittorgarh (Raj.) India.

1Assistant Prof., Department of Microbiology, Mewar University, Chittorgarh (Raj.) India.

3Department of Microbiology, S.B.B. Dental College & Research Centre, Ghaziabad, India.

Aim of the present study is prevalence and biochemical characterization of bacteria isolated from some River/Canal bank water sources, door of transport vehicles and shop-counters. Water samples from river/canal bank water sources and swab samples from door of transport vehicles and shop-counters were collected and analyzed for the load of pathogenic microorganism and possible disease potentials of these sources to prevent possible disease outbreak for the inhabitants. The results of study presents water samples collected from River/Canal bank contains the total aerobic bacterial counts ranged between 21×105 to 16.6×106 per ml, while on the door and seat handles of public transport vehicles and frequent public use shop counters the total bacterial counts ranged between 18×104 to 17.5×105 and 21×104 to 11.3×105, respectively. All of these were within the range of a high risk specified by WHO. In addition, There was a high correlation between water isolates with fecal isolates of different sources both in their culture characteristics as well as biochemical profiling which implies that the different sources might have been contaminated with mixed contaminants instigate from human as well as animal excreta. Forestalling of deterioration of water quality and pathogenic diseases transmission to humans via contaminated and improperly cleaned surfaces require community health superintendents, sanitary officers and Environmental Protection Board as well as private organizations to educate the population on personal and environmental hygiene.

Key Words: River/Canal bank water, Shop counters, Bacterial contamination.

Full Paper